1-Diamond A rating of the American Automobile Association (AAA). “These establishments typically appeal to the budget-minded traveler. They provide essential, no-frills accommodations. They meet the basic requirements pertaining to comfort, cleanliness, and hospitality.”
1-Star A Mobil Travel Guide Rating. “A Mobil One-Star Lodging Establishment is a limited service Hotel/Motel/Inn that is considered a clean, comfortable and reliable establishment.”
1/20% One for Fifty. Facility complimentary room policy: one complimentary room night for every fifty-room night picked up and paid for. While 1/20% was once the standard, the complimentary policies vary per hotel and/or event. 100% Star Billing Requirement by artist that his/her name appear in a typestyle and size equal to or greater than other names in advertising and promotional materials and media. 110/60 A common term describing normally available current in North American Continent. The full expression is 110-volt/60 cycle. Many European and South American areas have 220=volt/20% cycle power only.
2-Diamond A rating of the American Automobile Association (AAA). “These establishments appeal to the traveler seeking more than the basic accommodations. There are modest enhancements to the overall physical attributes, design elements, and amenities of the facility typically at a moderate price.”
2-Star A Mobil Travel Guide Rating. “A Mobil Two-Star Lodging Establishment is a Hotel/Resort/Inn that is considered a clean, comfortable and reliable establishment, but also has expanded amenities, such as a full-service restaurant on the property.”
20-Footer A 20′ by (usually) 10′ exhibit space. Similar terminology (a 30-footer, etc.) may be used.
24-Hour Hold A term used to describe the type of reservation made on function space within a venue (hotel, convention center, etc.). An event organizer who has 24-hour hold on a space has exclusive use and access to that space for a period of 24-hours, usually 12:01 am – 12:00 pm.
24-Hour Power When an exhibitor orders power to be left on in a booth/stand for 24 hours during run of the event; often required when there are refrigerators, fish tanks, or computers in booth/stand. 2-by-2 Slide Piece of 35mm photographic film in a 2-by-2 inch (5-by-5 centimeter) cardboard, glass, or plastic mount. See SLIDE. See Also Slide
2-D Bar Code A larger-than-average bar code that uses the PDF417 standard (the same used for e-stamps). Stores up to 1,800 characters in bar code on standard paper badge, which can then be used by exhibitors to get contact information from registrants.
3 Diamond A rating of the American Automobile Association (AAA). “These establishments appeal to the traveler with comprehensive needs. Properties are multifaceted with a distinguished style, including marked upgrades in the quality of physical attributes, amenities, and level of comfort provided.”
3 Star A Mobil Travel Guide Rating. “A Mobil Three-Star Lodging Establishment is a Hotel/Resort/Inn which is well-appointed, with a full-service restaurant and expanded amenities, such as, but not limited to: fitness center, golf course, tennis courts, 24-hour room service, and optional turndown service.”
3-Dimensional 3-D. A flat image having the effect of three dimensions.
3-Phase Type of alternating current used in high powered electrical applications.
3-Wire Term describing electrical cable with one continuous ground wire in addition to positive and negative wires.
4 Diamond A rating of the American Automobile Association (AAA). “These establishments are upscale in all areas. Accommodations are progressively more refined and stylish. The physical attributes reflect an obvious enhanced level of quality throughout. The fundamental hallmarks at this level include an extensive array of amenities combined with a high degree of hospitality, service, and attention to detail.”
4 Star A Mobil Travel Guide Rating. “Mobil Four-Star Lodging Establishment is a Hotel/Resort/Inn which provides a luxury experience with expanded amenities in a distinctive environment. Services may include, but are not limited to: automatic turndown service, 24 hour room service, and valet parking.”
4-Color Separation Process of printing a full color image utilizing four colored screened patterns from which printing plates can be engraved.
4-Hour Call Minimum work period for which union labor must be paid in special circumstances (generally, a minimum call is one hour, but some are 4 hours.). Not to be confused with minimum charges to exhibitors applied by contractors that service events.
5 Diamond A rating of the American Automobile Association (AAA). “These establishments reflect the characteristics of the ultimate in luxury and sophistication. Accommodations are first class. The physical attributes are extraordinary in every manner. The fundamental hallmarks at this level are to meticulously serve and exceed all guest expectations while maintaining an impeccable standard of excellence. Many personalized services and amenities enhance an unmatched level of comfort.”
5 Star A Mobil Travel Guide Rating. “A Mobil Five-Star Lodging Establishment provides consistently superlative service in an exceptionally distinctive luxury environment with expanded services. Attention to detail is evident throughout the Hotel/Resort/Inn from the bed linens to staff uniforms.”
20%1c A section of the IRS code that defines, and governs the actions of various types of tax-exempt organizations. For example, 20%1c(3) organizations are non-profit, educational, charitable and scientific organizations.
6 Box An electrical outlet that will accommodate 6 plugs. Sometimes called Sex Box. See DOG HOUSE. See Also Dog House
6-by-6 Rule Audiovisual guidelines by which no transparency of slide should contain more than six words per line of text and no more than six lines of text.
a la Broche Cooked on a skewer. Can be beef, chicken or shrimp. See EN BROCHETTE. See Also SHISH KEBOB. See Also en Brochette , Shish Kebob
a la Carte French term meaning “from the menu.” Each item is individually priced. Used in tour literature to indicate a choice of dishes will be available.
a la Grecque

Prepared Greek style with tomatoes, garlic, black olives and parsley.


a la King Cooked in white cream sauce with vegetables (e.g., Chicken à la King).
a la Meunière (moonyare) Dredging, a technique that allows flour to form a thin, golden crust on sautéed or fried items, (e.g., Trout Meunière).
a la Mode 1) In the style of. 2) Ice cream on pie. 3) Mashed potatoes on beef. a la Provencale Prepared with garlic and olive oil.
a la Vapeur Steamed
A-List A catering department’s steady, extra employees. They are the first called to work when temporary help is needed.
A/C Air Conditioning. See HVAC. See Also HVAC
A/V Contractor A supplier of technical staff and audiovisual equipment (e.g. projectors, screens, sound systems, video, and staging).
A/V Request Form Form given to speakers during the planning stages of an event to allow them to request the audiovisual equipment they will need for their presentations.
A/V Technician An audiovisual professional who is responsible on-site for lighting, sound, video, staging or other similar elements of an event function.
A1 1) First class condition. 2) A name brand steak sauce
A440 Designated international pitch to which pianos are tuned.
AA 1) Alcoholics Anonymous. 2) American Airlines.
AAA American Automobile Association.
AAAE American Association of Airport Executives.
AAF American Academy of Florists
AAR Against All Risks. A term often found in insurance policies and contracts.
AATTA African-American Travel and Tourism Association
Above the Line Advertising Traditional commission-paying media: press, TV, radio, cinema, outdoor; media handled by full-service agencies.
Absorption Ability of a material to absorb sound energy and reduce sound intensity.
Absorption Coefficient Efficiency of a material to absorb sound at a particular frequency (which relates to sound wave length and material thickness).
Abstract 1) Written summaries of speeches or papers, generally between 200-20%0 words. See CALL FOR PAPERS. See Also CONFERENCE PAPERS. 2) Laser presentations, graphic designs or patterns that are not representational of concrete objects. 3) A brief statement of content. See Also Call for Papers , Conference Papers
Abstract Board Usually rolling corkboards used for attaching copies of research papers for authors to discuss with participants. See POSTER SESSION. See Also Poster Session
AC Cable

Any wire conductor, regardless of size or connection, that carries an alternating current.


AC Hum Humming sound heard in an audio system, usually the result of a Ground Loop which is being amplified by the system.
Academic Conference/Seminar See COLLOQUIUM. See Also Colloquium
Acceleration Clause A provision sometimes used in contracts to accelerate deposit payment schedule or to demand full prepayment of master account in the event of a default or lack of credit by the organization. May also apply in other situations, such as assignments. Sometimes used in a hotel to accelerate deposit payment schedule or to demand full prepayment of master account in the event of a default by organization.
Accent Lighting Directional lighting used to highlight a particular area or object to draw attention to that portion of the field of view.
Acceptance A requirement for entering into a binding contract. If a contract proposal (offer) is made, it is accepted if the offeree signs the offer as submitted. If the offeree makes any changes to the offer before signing, it is a counter offer, not acceptance.
Accepted Practices Exchange APEX. An initiative of the meetings, conventions & exhibitions industry managed by the Convention Industry Council (CIC). APEX develops and manages the implementation of accepted practices (voluntary standards) for the industry.
Access Panel Removable panel or section of exhibit to permit access to lamps, projectors, mechanisms, etc.
Accessibility 1) Airline lift into and out of a destination. See Also LIFT. 2) Capable of being used by people with physical challenges and disabilities. This is an important aspect of the United States’ Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). See Also Lift
Accessorial Charges Generally refers to air-freight shipments. Airfreight forwarders can provide many services generally not available from common carriers. In most cases, these charges are not included in the per-pound rate of the carriers. Services include, but are not limited to, inside pickups & deliveries, special pickups & deliveries (specific time of day), waiting time, etc.
Accident Report A document prepared to record information including time, date, location, parties involved, witnesses, and nature or description of an incident. See INCIDENT REPORT. See Also Incident Report
Accommodation 1) Any seat, berth, room, or service provided and/or sold to a guest, attendee or passenger. 2) Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), a step taken to allow a person with a disability to participate in an event or employment.
Accompanying Person Guest or spouse of an attendee.
Account Sheet 1) Form used to keep track of number of rooms sold and/or still available. See TALLY SHEET. 2) Designates equipment, materials and teaching aids used in sound and visual presentations. See Also Tally Sheet
Accreditation Official authorization or approval; to provide with credentials; to send (an envoy) with letters of authorization; to recognize or vouch for as conforming with a standard; to recognize a college as maintaining academic standards; to consider or recognize as outstanding; approval given by various trade associations to a travel agency allowing the sale of tickets and other accommodations.
Accrual Accounting 1) An accounting method that enters income and expenses into the books at the time of contract versus when payment is received or expenses incurred (cash accounting). 2) A system in which revenue and expenses are accounted for as soon as they are committed.
Acetate Film positive or negative from which silk screens are produced. Also, a family of plastics for light transmission and surface protection.
Acetone Solvent and/or adhesive agent for bonding many plastic materials.
Acknowledgement Written notice that a request has been received and is being processed.
ACME Association for Convention Marketing Executives. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
ACOM Association for Convention Operation Management. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
ACON Air conditioned. See Also A/C , HVAC
Acoustic Baffle Absorptive board or sound barricade that can be placed around or between acoustic sources to provide sound isolation or deadening and reduce acoustic leakage between multiple microphones (e.g. in a recording studio or live musical performance stage set-up).
Acoustical Tile Composition board made into squares and placed upon the ceiling or walls to reduce sound.
Acoustician Specialist in the behavior and control of audio energy within an environment.
Acoustics Study of the performance of sound energy. Also the way in which sound energy performs in a given space.
ACRA American Car Rental Association.
Across the Board Includes everything; inclusive.
Acrylic 1) The family of clear, color, and translucent thermoplastic resins such as Plexiglas or Lucite. 2) A fine art painting medium.
Acrylic Emulsion A water-based latex made of acrylic polymer and used for coatings and/or impregnations.
Act of God An extraordinary natural event such as extreme weather, flood, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquake or similar natural disaster that cannot be reasonably foreseen or prevented over which a contracting party has no reasonable control, making performance of the contract illegal, impracticable or impossible, thus the parties have no legal responsibility to continue performance of the contract. See FORCE MAJEURE. See Also Force Majeure
Action Station Chefs prepare foods to order and serve them fresh to guests. Also called Performance Stations, or Exhibition Cooking. Popular items for action stations include: pasta, grilled meat or shrimp, carved meats, sushi, crepes, omelets, flaming desserts, Caesar Salad, etc.
Active Crossover An electronic device which filters and selectively amplifies frequencies, separating the frequencies into sections or bands, and routing them to outputs designed to drive power amplifiers and in turn, speakers. The frequencies filtered depend on the electrical value of the component parts in the circuits of the device, but not on the source or load impedances connected to the device, except in the case where the crossover is actually a passive crossover designed for insertion in the medium-level signal lines of an audio system rather than in speaker lines.
Active Language The language being used by the speaker.
Active Listening A structured way of listening and responding to others. It focuses attention on the speaker. Having heard, the listener may then paraphrase the speaker’s words. It is important to note that the listener is not necessarily agreeing with the speaker—simply stating what was said.
Actual Cash Value ACV. Replacement cost of lost or damaged property less depreciation.
Actual Weight Also known as gross shipping weight. Determined by (1) weighing a vehicle empty, (2) loading a shipment and returning the vehicle to the scale to obtain the weight, and (3) subtracting the two weights. Can also be obtained by individually weighing each piece of freight.
Ad Hoc Committee Committee formed to deal with a specific issue to be resolved upon making its final report.
Ad Valorem Tax Tax applied to an item according to the value of an item. See DUTY. See Also Duty
ADA Americans with Disabilities Act. U.S. legislation passed in 1992 requiring public buildings (offices, hotels, restaurants, etc.) to make adjustments meeting minimum standards to make their facilities accessible to individuals with physical disabilities.
ADA Compliant Ready to or disposed to perform in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act.
Additional Insured An individual or organization listed as covered by a primary insurance agreement.
Add-One Any component of a package tour that is not included in the package price, but may be purchased as an added feature or to extend the length of the package. Tour options are purchased at additional cost.
Adjoining Rooms Rooms with common walls, which do not have connecting doors.
Adjustable Standard Vertical support that allows shelf bracket to be affixed at any point in the support.
Adlux A black and white photo transparency.
ADME Association of Destination Management Executives. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Admission Card Admission card confirming a booking and registration to an event. See CONGRESS CARD. See Also Congress Card
Admission Ticket Ticket used for admission to an event.
Adult Learner A student who is independently employed and usually pursuing education to attain a specific, practical goal.
Adult Staff-to-Child Ratio The ratio of adults to children required during a childcare/youth program. Accepted ratios are 3:1 for infants, 4:1 for toddlers, 6:1 for children up to eight years old.
Advance Deposit Amount of money paid to secure a room, facility or service in advance.
Advance Order An order for goods and/or services ordered before the move-in date for an exhibition. Usually less expensive than a FLOOR ORDER. See Also Floor Order
Advance Rate Fees associated with advance orders, which typically include discounts when paid in advance.
Advance Registration Booking before an event takes places. Allows attendees to register for an event before it actually takes place. Done through mail, phone, internet or fax. See PREREGISTRATION. See Also Pre-Registration
Adventure Tour A TOUR designed around an adventurous activity such as rafting, hiking or ballooning. See Also Tour
Advertising Information about an event that the organizer pays to have printed or announced in various forms of media (e.g. press, TV, radio, cinema, outdoor).
Advertising Specialties Promotional items which include a firm’s name and/or marketing message.
Advisory Board A group that offers advice or counsel to event organizer, event management, or other organization on strategic options such as conference content, exhibitor matters, contracting policies or other issues.
Advisory Capacity A term indicating that a shipper’s agent or representative is not empowered to make definitive decisions or adjustments without approval of the group or individual represented. See WITHOUT RESERVE. See Also Without Reserve
AED Automated External Defibrillator. Device installed in many large public areas (e.g. airports, hotels, convention centers). Can be used by any individual to administer lifesaving care to person experiencing a heart attack.
Affiliate 1) Affiliate (Networks) typically are entities that have a range of products and services that are promoted and earn commission from sales or leads to sales. 2) In the North American broadcasting industry, a network affiliate (or affiliated station) is a local broadcaster that carries some or all of the program line-up of a television or radio network, but is owned by a company other than the owner of the network. This distinguishes such a station from an owned-and-operated station (O&O), which is owned by its parent network.
Affiliation Union of a society, firm or political party with another, but without loss of identity.
Affinity Group Group sharing common interest, usually people who are members of an organization.
Affixed Merchandise Products fastened to a display.
Affreightment (Contract of) An agreement between a shipping line (or similar carrier) and an importer or exporter in which cargo space is reserved on a vessel for a specified time and at a specified price. The importer/exporter is obligated to make payment whether or not the shipment is made.
Agenda A list, outline or plan of items to be done or considered at an event or during a specific time block. May include time schedule.
Agent 1) Broadly, one who acts or has the power to act: more usually, one that acts as the representative of another. Most frequently in travel, a specific kind of agent such as a retail travel agent. 2) Person that obtains engagements for entertainers, is paid by the entertainers and has no contract for production responsibilities. 3) Person in a speaker bureau/agency that acts on behalf of the seller (speaker) or on behalf of the buyer (customer).
AH&LA American Hotel and Lodging Association. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Air Cargo Any property carried, or to be carried, in an aircraft, excluding passenger baggage.
Air Consignment Note A bill of lading issued by the airline that covers both domestic and international flights transporting goods to a specified destination. Technically, it is a non-negotiable instrument of air transport that serves as a receipt for the shipper, indicating that the carrier has accepted the goods listed therein and obligates itself to carry the consignment to the airport of destination according to specified conditions. A bill of lading that covers domestic and international flights transporting goods. See AIR WAYBILL. See Also BILL OF LADING, INLAND BILL OF LADING, OCEAN BILL OF LADING, THROUGH BILL OF LADING. See Also Air Waybill , Bill of Lading , Inland Bill of Lading , Ocean Bill of Lading , Through Bill of Lading
Air Express Expedited airfreight, usually referring to overnight air.
Air Freight Materials shipped via airplane.
Air Wall Movable barrier that partitions a large area into smaller areas. May be sound resistant, but not necessarily sound proof. See DIVIDER. See Also MOVABLE WALL, PARTITION. See Also Divider , Movable Wall , Partition
Air Waybill A bill of lading issued by the airline that covers both domestic and international flights transporting goods to a specified destination. Technically, it is a non-negotiable instrument of air transport that serves as a receipt for the shipper, indicating that the carrier has accepted the goods listed therein and obligates itself to carry the consignment to the airport of destination according to specified conditions. A bill of lading that covers domestic and international flights transporting goods. See AIR CONSIGNMENT NOTE. See Also BILL OF LADING, INLAND BILL OF LADING, OCEAN BILL OF LADING, THROUGH BILL OF LADING. See Also Air Consignment Note , Bill of Lading , Inland Bill of Lading , Ocean Bill of Lading , Through Bill of Lading
Airfreight Forwarder An airfreight company that transports freight via scheduled airlines. Forwarders do not operate their own planes.
Airport Hotel Hotel located near a major airport; usually does not have a lot of recreational facilities.
Air-Ride Suspension Smoothest ride for fragile cargo, made possible by two to four air bags located at the rear axle of the trailer, tractor or fifth-wheel.
Aisle 1) Area between a booth/stand for audience traffic movement. 2) Space between sets of tables, chairs or a booth/stand to allow passage of attendees. See GANGWAY. See Also Gangway Aisle Carpet Carpet installed in aisles.
Aisle Sign A sign, usually suspended, indicating aisle numbers or letters.
All Expense Tour See INCLUSIVE TOUR. See Also Inclusive Tour
All-Suite Hotel See SUITE HOTEL. See Also Suite Hotel
All-Inclusive Tour See INCLUSIVE TOUR. See Also Inclusive Tour
All-Risks Insurance Insurance against loss of or damage to property arising from any fortuitous cause except those that are specifically excluded. An insurance contract which provides All-Risks Insurance is an All-Risks policy.
Alpha List A list arranged in alphabetical order, such as definitions in a glossary or event attendees. Alteration A change made by the client after any part of the production process has begun. Usually billed as an extra charge.
Alternate Media Alternatives to print materials (e.g. Braille, large print, etc.) provided to assist people with disabilities in achieving full participation.
Alternative Dispute Resolution Method for resolving disputes without going to court.
Alumni Tour A TOUR designed for those people who have previously traveled with a particular tour company. Also Called REUNION TOUR. See Also Tour
Amandine Served with thinly sliced almonds, sautéed in butter.
Ambience Distinctive acoustical characteristic of a room or acoustic space due to the many sound reflections in the space (e.g., rooms that are said to be acoustically “dead” lack ambience).
Ambient Light 1) Level of illumination from natural lighting sources already existing in an environment. 2) Uncontrolled and unintended illumination.
Amenity Complimentary items in sleeping rooms such as writing supplies, bathrobes, fruit baskets, shower caps, shampoo and shoe shine mitt provided by facility for guests.
American Breakfast A meal of fruits and/ or juices, cereal, eggs, meat, bakery goods and hot or cold beverages.
American Plan AP. A type of hotel rate that includes the price of the room and all meals. Also Called FULL AMERICAN PLAN (FAP). See INCLUSIVE RATE. See Also BERMUDA PLAN, CONTINENTAL PLAN, DEMI-PENSION, EUROPEAN PLAN, MODIFIED AMERICAN PLAN. See Also Inclusive Rate , Bermuda Plan , Continental Plan , Demi-Pension , European Plan , Modified American Plan
American Reception X Stand-up social function with beverage and sufficient food to replace a main meal.
American Service Food is plated in the kitchen and placed before the guest. Side dishes are used for bread and butter and salad. Food is served from the left, beverages from the right, and all items are removed from the right. This is generally the service used for banquets. See PLATED SERVICE. See Also Plated Service
Americans with Disabilities Act ADA. U.S. legislation passed in 1992 requiring public buildings (offices, hotels, restaurants, etc.) to make adjustments meeting minimum standards to make their facilities accessible to individuals with physical disabilities.
AMMC Alliance of Meeting Management Companies. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Amorphic Lens Special lens for projectors used to eliminate distortion in abnormally wide throws.
Amperage An International System unit for the amount of electrical current transferred from one component to another. This specification is often important when considering the amplifier loudspeaker interface. See AMPERE. See Also Ampere
Ampere The standard measurement of current.
Amphitheater Outdoor facility with a flat performance area surrounded by rising rows of seats or a grassy slope allowing the audience to view the performance. The seating area is usually a semi-circular shape or adapted to the surrounding landscape.
Amplification Increase in signal quantity of either amplitude or power level.
Amplifier Amp. 1) Device which increases the voltage and/or power level of signals fed through it. 2) Device enabling sound to be intensified.
Amplitude Extreme range of a fluctuating quantity, as an alternating current, swing of a pendulum, etc., generally measured from the average or mean to the extreme. Also used to make reference to the overall volume of a signal.
AMS Association Management Software
Analog A method of conveying data electronically in relation to a television, radio or telephone signal by varying its frequency or amplitude.
Anamorphic Lens Lens adapter designed to produce a wide screen image. Anchor An auger-type device used to secure the guy ropes of a tent to the ground, ranging in length from 30-48 inches with a helix of 4-8 inches in diameter. Anchors hold better than stakes do in bare earth and sand. See STAKES. See Also Stakes
Ancillary Activities All event-related support services within a facility that generate revenue.
Ancillary Center Event facility that is typically part of a larger hospitality complex.
Andragogy The art and science of helping adults learn as opposed to pedagogy, which is the science of helping children learn.
Androgogic Model Knowles Theory. A theory that proposes that for adults to learn, the following must be addressed: adults need to know why they need to learn something; adults need to learn through experience; adults view learning as problem solving; adults only learn when the material is immediately relevant.
Angels on Horseback Baked bacon-wrapped oysters.
Animation A technique that creates an illusion of movement when used in rapid sequence.
Ann Announcer. .
Anncr. Announcer.
Anodizing The process of preserving metal by adding a protective oxide film by an electrolytic process. ANSI American National Standards Institute. An organization responsible for fostering the development of and approving technology standards in the United States.
Answer Print The first positive print of a movie film made from the rough edited negative.
Anti-Discrimination Laws Laws that protect individuals or groups from bias and discrimination on the basis of factors such as age, sex, religion, national origin or disability. Anti discrimination laws may be imposed on the local (e.g. city, county), state or federal level. Federal laws prohibit discrimination in any place of public accommodation. Anti-discrimination provisions are sometimes included in contracts to allow a party to the contract to cancel without liability in the event the other party or parties is found guilty of engaging in discriminatory practices.
Antidiversion Clause See DESTINATION CONTROL STATEMENT. See Also Destination Control Statement
Antipasto Italian appetizers that include olives, salami, peppers, marinated vegetable salads, sliced meats, cheeses and other similar foods.
Anti-Stat for Carpet A spray that helps reduce static electricity in carpets. Antistat
Wax A solution applied to plastics to minimize dust accumulation.
Antitrust Laws Legislation designed to promote competition and prevent unfair practices that may lead to monopolies or suppression of competition.
Anvil Case Reinforced molded plastic case, normally with foam cutouts for transporting fragile materials.
AoD Audio on Demand. Streaming Audio delivered via a network, available anytime, anywhere.
AP American Plan. A type of hotel rate that includes the price of the room and all meals. Also Called FULL AMERICAN PLAN (FAP). See INCLUSIVE RATE. See Also BERMUDA PLAN, CONTINENTAL PLAN, DEMIPENSION, EUROPEAN PLAN, MODIFIED AMERICAN PLAN. See Also Inclusive Rate , Bermuda Plan , Continental Plan , Demi-Pension , European Plan , Modified American Plan
Aperture Width/Height Actual slide or film frame dimensions. APEX Accepted Practices Exchange. An initiative of the meetings, conventions & exhibitions industry managed by the Convention Industry Council (CIC). APEX develops and manages the implementation of accepted practices (voluntary standards) for the industry.
APEX Fare Advance Purchase Excursion Fare (airline). Special fare at a lower rate.
Appellation1) Designated wine growing areas governed by the rules and regulations of a country’s federal local government body. Rules vary from country to country but are similar in their attempt to stimulate the production of quality wines. Regulations are established by the Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée (AOC) in France, the Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) in Italy, the Denominaçao de Origem Controlada (DOC) in Portugal, the Denominación de Origen (DO) in Spain and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) in the United States. 2) Synonym for name.
Application Service Provider ASP. A company that manages and distributes softwarebased solutions to customers across a wide area network from a central data center. In essence, ASPs are a way for organizations to outsource some or almost all aspects of their information technology needs
Application Sharing A feature of many videoconferencing systems that allows two or more people to use the same software program, even if all do not have it on their computer or conferencing system
Appliqué Any item applied to fabric or other surfaces for the purpose of decor
Appointed Entity Airline ticket sales outlet, such as a travel agency, accredited by the International Air Transport Association (IATA).
Apprentice An individual who works in exchange for the learning experience, often unpaid
Apron Part of a stage in front of the main curtain.
AQ Any quantity.
Arbitrage The process of buying foreign exchange, stocks, bonds, and other commodities in one market and immediately selling them in another market at higher prices.
Arbitration …. Private dispute resolution process, often referred to as alternate dispute resolution, in which the parties agree to submit their dispute to an impartial third party for a decision. Depending on the type of arbitration, the arbitrator’s decision may or may not be binding. Several organizations, including the American Arbitration Association and JAMS-Endispute, handle arbitration claims. Courts may require some disputes be submitted to arbitration instead of or prior to the formal trial process.
Arc Light A light source providing high-intensity light utilizing a positive and negative metal rod (instead of a lightbulb) for large screens or long projection distances; also used in follow spotlights; replaced by xenon lamps in the 1980s. Arch A curved display ceiling that spans two points, such as a ceiling or entryway.
Architectural Cuisine Menu items where food is stacked for height, such as endive boats filled with salad greens. See VERTICAL CUISINE. See Also Vertical Cuisine
Area Agreement A union contract covering companies and unions that bargain on an area-wide basis
Arena Facility type featuring a large flat main floor surrounded by fixed seats in a sloping oval or modified oval shape, much steeper that the typical theater. Some are arranged in two or more tiers. Sight lines are nearly always designed for events the size of a hockey floor, circus, ice show, or basketball court
Argon An inert, colorless, odorless gas that creates a blue-green color inside a laser tube
Armorply A term for plywood or lumber with a metal veneer.
Arranged Environment A learning environment with planned physical set-up and seating arrangements.
Arrival Manifest An itemized list of anticipated dates and times of arrival of group members
Arrival Notice …. A document issued by railroads, airlines and maritime services identifying the shipment is sent to the consignee or their agent and informing consignee/agent of cargo’s arrival.
Arrival Pattern Anticipated dates and times of arrival of group members.
Arrival Time Time or approximate time guests plan to arrive at a facility
Arrival/Departure Pattern A description of arrival and departure activities of an event’s attendees. See MAJOR ARRIVAL. See Also MAJOR DEPARTURE, GROUP ARRIVALS/DEPARTURES. This information should be included in the specifications guide for an event. See Also Major Arrival , Major Departure , Group Arrivals/Departures
. Art Any materials (drawings, photographs, type) used in preparing camera-ready art. Also known as artwork.
Articles and By-laws Rules adopted by an organization for managing its internal affairs. As Directed Based on time and at the direction of the customer. ASAE American Society of Association Executives. ASCAP American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers. A membership organization that represents individuals who hold the copyrights to music written in the United States and grants licensing agreements for the performance of that music.
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange A code that assigns numbers to alphabetic, numeric and certain other characters. ASCII is the most common format for text files in computers and on the Internet.
Ash Stand . Stand which holds ashtrays. A receptacle for tobacco ashes; an ashtray; ash can. Aside A dramatic device in which an actor speaks directly to the audience while other individuals onstage supposedly do not hear him or her
ASM Assistant stage manager
ASP Application Service Provider See Also Application Service Provider
Aspect Ratio The ratio of image width to height; pertaining to audiovisual, video and slides
Assembly . 1) The process of erecting display component parts into a complete exhibit. 2) A general or formal meeting of an organization attended by representatives of its members for the purpose of deciding legislative direction, policy matters, the election of internal committees and approval of balance sheets, budgets, etc. Consequently, an assembly usually observes certain rules of procedure for its meetings; mostly prescribed in its Articles & By-laws. See Also Articles and By-laws
Assessment 1) The process used to evaluate a participant’s skill level with respect to a set of materials or requirements. 2) A charge to a supplier(s) from a service entity such as Convention Bureau, Housing Bureau, etc. that is for a specific service such as convention center fees, busing, housing or other that is part of an event customer’s agreement. This assessment is normally paid to the service provider directly by the supplier. Compare with REBATE. See Also Rebate
Asset Something of value that is owned.
Assistant Lead Dispatcher The onsite staff member second in command of the transportation system. Assists the lead dispatcher and fills in when the lead dispatcher is not on site. Normally the assistant lead dispatcher is assigned to the command center.
Association An organized group of individuals and/or companies who band together to accomplish a common purpose, usually to provide for the needs of its members. Usually nonprofit. See TRADE ASSOCIATION. See Also Trade Association
Association Agreement 1) A union contract covering companies and unions that bargain on an area-wide basis. 2) A union contract negotiated by a group of employers through an employer’s association with the union representing their employees
Association Booth/Stand An exhibit booth/stand at which an association provides information about its purpose and services to members and prospective members. Association Meeting An event initiated by an association. See ASSOCIATION. See Also Association
Association Staff An individual who works for an association.
ASTA American Society of Travel Agents
ASTD American Society for Training and Development..
Asynchronous Learning Any learning event that is delivered after the original live event or where the interaction is delayed over time. Typically this is on-demand and can be to video-ondemand (VoD), audio-on-demand (AoD), correspondence courses, email messages, bulletin boards, etc.
At Liberty Euphemism used by actors, consultants, and others for unemployed or available for work. Those who are unemployed.
At Sight .. A phrase indicating that payment on a draft or other negotiable contract is due upon demand. At Site Location of event or exhibit. See ON-SITE. See Also On-Site ATA Air Transport Association of America. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
ATA Carnet An international customs document that permits duty-free and tax-free temporary import of goods for up to one year. It eliminates or reduces VAT charges, customs fees, and bond fees. The initials “ATA” are an acronym of the French and English words “Admission Temporaire/Temporary Admission.” ATA Carnets cover commercial samples; professional equipment; and, goods for presentation or use at trade fairs, shows, exhibitions, etc. Items not covered are consumable or disposable goods, which will not be returned home. At-a-Glance Program Condensed, quick reference version of an event’s program. See POCKET PROGRAM. See Also Pocket Program ATC Air Traffic Conference of America (a division of the Air Transport Association (ATA).
Athletic Meeting An event that involves sports or athletic equipment. Athletes, guests or attendees may be in competition or demonstration.
Atmospheric A term used to describe a lighting effect created by laser light projected through the air, often enhanced with theatrical fog; also known as aerial beams
Atmospherics Use of color to create a mood in a room or exhibit
Attendance Total number of people at an event.
Attendee . An individual, registered for or participating in an event. Includes delegates, exhibitors, media, speakers, and guests.
Attendee Brochure Direct mail piece sent to current and prospective attendees that promotes the benefits of attending a specific event.
Attendee Scope Where attendees come from. It is directly related to the spending characteristics of attendees who fall into each of these categories: INTERNATIONAL- Draws a national and international event audience; 15% or more of event delegates reside outside of event host country. NATIONAL-Draws a national event audience; More than 40% of delegates reside outside of a 400 mile (640 km) radius of event city. REGIONAL-60% of delegates reside within a 400 mile (640 km) radius of event city; Delegates may reside in a multi-state area and/or a regionally homogenous international area. STATE/PROVINCEMore than 80% of delegates reside in event state/province (or event-sponsoring state/province when held in state/province other than home state/province; More than 20% of delegates reside outside a 20% mile (80 km) radius of event site; State/provincial audiences are less inclined to use air travel and local auto rental than regional audiences. LOCAL-80% of delegates reside within a 20% mile (80 km) of radius of event site; Local audiences typically do not require overnight accommodations.
Attenuate To reduce. In audio parlance, to reduce the level of an electrical signal as with a volume control
Attraction A natural or man-made facility, location, or activity that offers items of specific interest. An attraction can be a natural or scenic wonder (e.g. the Grand Canyon), a manmade theme park (e.g. Disneyland), a cultural or historic exhibition (e.g. World’s Fair), or a wildlife/ecological park (e.g. zoo or aquarium).
Attrition The difference between the actual number of sleeping rooms picked-up (or food-and-beverage covers or revenue projections) and the number or formulas agreed to in the terms of the facility’s contract. Usually there is an allowable shortfall before damages are assessed
Attrition Clause Contract wording that outlines potential damages or fees that a party may be required to pay in the event that it does not fulfill minimum commitments in the contract.
au Gratin Foods sprinkled with crumbs and/or cheese and baked until browned
au Jus Served with natural meat juices or gravy without thickening.
au Lait With milk (e.g. café au lait).
Audience Count . The number of people in an audience. In a controlled situation, this number is most accurately found through ticket sales, turnstile counts, or established seating capacities. In a non-controlled situation, estimates from law enforcement agencies, park and recreation departments, or other organizations involved in crowd control are usually reliable. See COVER. See Also HEAD COUNT See Also Cover , Head Count
Audience Left and Right Stage directions from the audience’s perspective. This is the opposite of STAGE LEFT AND RIGHT. See CAMERA LEFT AND RIGHT. See Also SCREEN LEFT AND RIGHT
Audience Polling Computer application that enables voting and then collects and displays the results, simplifying decisionmaking among event participants.
Audio Frequency Any frequency which humans hear, typically between a lower limit of about 12 hertz and an upper limit of about 20,000 hertz. This range of audio frequencies is also known as the “audio spectrum.” Audio Monitor 1) Speaker for listening to the playback of tapes or records. 2) A loudspeaker used for listening to the playback of tapes or records and by musicians to hear themselves or other musicians on stage. 3) Conference call.
Audioconference A conference using only voice transmissions between two or more sites. Audiovisual A/V. Equipment, materials, and teaching aids used in sound and visual presentations, such as television monitors, video, sound equipment, etc.
Audiovisual Aids Audio and visual support for events, usually taking the form of film, slides, overhead projection, flip charts, sound equipment and blackboards.
Audit A methodical examination and review of records pertaining to an event. For instance, an independent verification of attendance figures submitted by an exhibition’s producers.
Audition A tryout performance before producers, directors, casting directors or others for the purpose of obtaining a part in a production or a booking as a speaker.
Auditorium Room for gathering an audience for speeches, concerts etc. Often used to name entire facilities, though properly applied only to the seated portion of the facility in which the audience is assembled. Typically a building named in this way will be an arena or theater class building.
Auditorium Lens A projection lens used for long distances. Auditorium Lights See HOUSE LIGHTS. See Also House Lights
Auditorium Set-Up Seating arrangement where chairs are arranged in rows facing head table, stage or speaker. Variations are semicircular and V-shaped. See THEATER SET-UP. See Also Theater Set-Up
Authorized Signatory A person who is authorized to legally bind an individual or organization to a contract, to sign checks on behalf of an organization, or charge to an organization’s master account.
Autograph Table Traditionally, a table where a speaker autographs books after a speaking engagement. Many speakers currently use the term to mean the table at the back of the room from which they sell their products.
Automatic Advance Feature on a slide projector which automatically inserts the next slide.
Auxiliary Aids and Services 1) Contracted services (e.g. stewards, technicians, interpreters, tour guides, etc.) that provide support for an event. 2) The use of adaptive equipment or assistance to ensure accessibility for people with disabilities.
Auxiliary Business Business that is brought to the facility because of, or in conjunction with, an event. See IN CONJUNCTION WITH. See Also In Conjunction With
Auxiliary Supply System for providing power, lighting, air conditioning, heating, catering and emergency battery systems.
Average Room Rate 1) Mathematical average of a series of sleeping room rates. 2) The total sleeping room revenue for a given period’s occupied rooms divided by the number of rooms occupied for the same period. In this instance the average is commonly referred to as a hotel’s Average Daily Rate (ADR).
Awards Banquet/Celebration An event, usually formal, to honor outstanding performance.
Awning A monopitch tent structure that is supported by a frame and is often foldable
Axis Imaginary center point.
B&B . 1) Bed and Breakfast. 2) Brandy and Benedictine. b/g Background, as in background music. B/P Bills Payable. B2B Business-to-Business.
Baby Spot 1) Small spotlight in a booth/stand, usually 15 watt. 2) Small spotlight in the ceiling of function rooms used to highlight decor, such as centerpieces.
Babysitting Facilities Arrangements for care of children during a short absence of the parents.
Back Drape A drape, curtain or fabric panel that provides a soft, colorful background for a speaker. The audience’s attention will be zeroed on the speaker with enhanced concentration and retention.
Back Light 1) A light source that illuminates any transparent or translucent material from behind. 2) A lighting instrument used behind and above a presenter to give more depth and better image when video taping or using imagemagnification. 3) Lighting instrument used behind and above a presenter to give more depth and better image when video taping or using image-magnification.
Back of the House A term used in hotels to refer to areas for staff only, as opposed to the front of the house
Back Projection . Image projected on the back surface of a screen, which is placed between the viewer and the projector. See REAR PROJECTION. See Also Rear Projection
Backbone A permanently installed series of cable comprised of copper wire cable and/or fiber optic cable, utilized as the main thoroughfare in a building to transmit voice and data signals in or out of the facility
. Backdrop Drapes, curtain, or fabric panels at the back of a stage, speaker’s table, or exhibit booth/stand
Backline Equipment . Equipment required by musicians that is needed in order to perform at an engagement. This varies from artist to artist and often must be rented by the event organizer. Generally, it is everything a live band needs, such as amplifiers, apart from the musicians and their instruments.
Z Back-Lit Panels Three-dimensional structure (or box) with lights placed behind a transparent image.
Backloader Truck which loads from a rear-opening door.
Back-of-Room Sales The act and process of selling books, tapes, and other products at the back of the room, usually immediately after a speech.
Backstage Portion of the theater behind the main curtain including stage, dressing rooms, and wings.
Back-to-Back Travel or conference programs operating on a continuous or chronologically sequential basis so that one group arrives as another group departs or shortly thereafter.
Back-to-Back Booth/Stand The standard exhibit configuration where booths/stands are placed in rows, back to back.
Back-Up Facility Substitute facility that will serve as an as a viable alternative if the original facility become unavailable or inadequate for its intended purpose.
Backwall 1) The back wall (either hardwall or draped) of a perimeter, booth/stand/exhibit, or inline. 2) Panel arrangement at rear of booth/stand area.
Backwall Booth/Stand An exhibit that is back to back with another exhibit or against a building wall. See PERIMETER BOOTH/STAND. See Also Perimeter Booth/Stand
Badge Identifying sign, tag or emblem worn by event participants. Sometimes called a nametag.
Baffle Partition to control light, air, sound, or traffic flow.
Baguette Long French bread; crunchy crust.
Baked Alaska Brick ice cream on cake, covered with meringue and browned quickly in the oven. Sometimes served flaming in a waiter parade.
Baklava Russian, Greek or Turkish pastry made of flaky dough, honey, butter and chopped nuts.
Balance Sheet A statement that indicates overall financial status by subtracting expenses from income.
Baling Wire Thin gauged wire often used in display work for fastening or tying objects.
Ball Formal social gathering for dancing.
Ball Light Stationary adjustable light found on older model exhibits.
Ballast A power supply used with arc or discharge lamps to control current through the bulb.
Bananas Foster Dessert prepared with bananas, brown sugar, liqueur and served over vanilla ice cream. Often prepared flaming at table side.
Band Portion of the audio frequency spectrum in the same way that green is a portion of the visible frequency spectrum. The audio frequency spectrum covers a range of over 10 octaves.
Band Pass Set of two filters that attenuate frequencies beyond the frequency limits of a given band of frequencies. The telephone, for example, is a band pass filter that eliminates low frequencies below about 300 hertz and high frequencies above about 5,000 hertz, causing the characteristic telephone sound most people are familiar with.
Banding Thin, flat wire used to hold cartons or crates together.
Bandwidth The amount of information that can be transmitted in an information channel such as a telephone line, ISDN, or Ethernet. Higher bandwidth means that images and sound will load more quickly for use in videoconferences or on the Internet.
Banjo cloth Type of lightweight cloth used for backdrops.
Bank Draft An order drawn for the payment of a specified sum of money through a bank to a particular person or entity.
Bank Guarantee Cash Deposit Payable by the exhibitor to the forwarder, Customs agent, or official authorities in place of a temporary import bond to ensure the amount requested is the minimum amount of import duties and taxes that would be paid in case of final import.
Bank Maze See STANCHIONS See Also Stanchions
Bank Pin Pin used for hanging booth/stand ID signs, alternative to S-HOOKS.
Bank Remittance Money forwarded to a bank; may be by mail or electronic means.
Bank Transfer Movement of funds between banks or from one bank account to another
Banner A suspended decorative or communicative panel, usually a temporary fabric or paper. Can be used as hanging signs.
Banner Advertising An advertisement on a Web site which allows user to “click through” to the advertiser’s Web site.
Banquet Formal, often ceremonial, dinner for a select group of people, often in honor of a particular person.
Banquet Captain Person in charge of banquet service at food functions. For small functions, also serves as maitre d. For larger functions, may be responsible for a specific area of the dining room.
Banquet Event Order BEO A form most often used by hotels to provide details to personnel concerned with a specific food and beverage function or event room set-up.
Banquet Manager A person in charge of banquet service.
Banquet Round 1) Round table used for meal service; depending on the diameter, can comfortably seat up to 12 persons. A round for 8 is usually 60-inches in diameter and is also called a 5-footer. The 66-inch round is a newer table size and seats 8 to 10. A round for 10is usually 72-inches in diameter and is also called 6-footer.
Banquet Set-Up 1) Seating arrangement where typically a grouping of rounds is set in such a way as to facilitate the serving of food, most often a hexagonal or square pattern. 2) Function-room set up and tear down. See HOUSEMAN. See Also Houseman
Banquet Set-Up Manager In charge of function room set up, over housemen
Bare Booth/Stand Booth/stand with no services or facilities, meaning that these all have to be hired at an additional cost.
Bargaining Agent Union recognized by the employer or designated by a government agency to act as the exclusive representative of employees in a bargaining unit.
Bargaining Unit A group of employees designated by a government agency or accepted by the employer as constituting an appropriate unit for representation by a union.
Barn Door Movable hinged flap used on stage lights to control light spill.
Barrier-Free Absence of obstacles preventing handicapped persons from moving freely to all public areas within a building.
Barriers to Entry Conditions that create difficulty for competitors to enter the market. For example, monopolies, cartels, copyrights, trademarks, patents, dedicated distribution channels and high initial investment requirements.
Barter Trade in which merchandise or service is exchanged directly for other merchandise or service without the use of money. Barter can be an important means of trade with countries using currency that is not readily convertible.
Base 1) Steel floor support piece for upright post. 2) A stand on which something rests or is supported. Base
Currency Currency in which all official business transactions will take place. Base
Plate Empty dinner plate used as a base for several courses and removed prior to the main course. Also called Set Plate. See Also UNDERLINER. Compare With SHOW PLATE. See Also Underliner , Show Plate
Base Rate The hourly rate or salary paid for a job performed. It does not include payments of overtime, incentives or other differentials.
Base Salary The fixed amount paid to an employee on a regular basis, not including any gratuities, commissions, benefits or bonuses.
Batten BATS. Lengths of pipe from which scenery, curtains, and lights can be hung.
Baud Bits a modem can send or receive per second
BDI Both Dates Inclusive.
Bead Metal edge of lath or framing that finishes corners or openings and gives plaster finish continuous, smooth corners.
Bead Board A circuit board, which is most often carrying less than 24 volts of electricity.
Beaded Screen Type of screen with highly reflective surface used for front protection.
Beam The size, shape and sharpness of the image of the light as projected on a surface.
Béarnaise Sauce A derivative of the hollandaise mother sauce. It is prepared by adding a tarragon reduction to hollandaise. Béarnaise must be kept on or near heat or it will separate and break down. Often served on Filet Mignon.
Bed and Breakfast 1) A guesthouse, small hotel or private home that offers overnight accommodations and breakfast for paying guests. 2) Sleeping room rate includes breakfast. See CONTINENTAL PLAN (CP). See Also Continental Plan
Bed Hook The size, shape and sharpness of the image of the light as projected on a surface.
Bed Tax See TRANSIENT OCCUPANCY TAX. See Also Transient Occupancy Tax
Beef Wellington Tenderloin coated with liver pate and baked en Croute (flaky crust).
Beep Audio signal used for cueing and editing.
Beeper Small radio receiver that emits a beeping noise when signaled to alert the person carrying it.
Beignet (ben yay) 1) French doughnut, square shaped, minus the hole, lavishly sprinkled with powdered sugar. 2) Foods dipped in batter and deep-fried.
Bell Captain A hotel employee who supervises the work of staff whose primary responsibility is to carry luggage, run errands, etc. at a hotel or club. Not to be confused with Concierge.
Below-the-Line Expenses Expenses for general business purposes not related directly to an event, common referred to as general overhead expenses such as office rent, health insurance, etc.
Benefits 1) Entitlements made available in accordance with employment, such as a medical insurance policy, vacation, sick leave, etc. 2) Compensation or coverage from an insurance policy.
BEO Banquet Event Order. A form most often used by hotels to provide details to personnel concerned with a specific food and beverage function or event room set-up.
Bermuda Plan Hotel accommodations with full American-style breakfast included in the rate. See BED AND BREAKFAST. See Also AMERICAN PLAN, CONTINENTAL PLAN, DEMIPENSION, EUROPEAN PLAN, MODIFIED AMERICAN PLAN. See Also Bed and Breakfast , American Plan , Continental Plan , Demi-Pension , European Plan , Modified American Plan
Betacam/BetaSP Common video format for presentation graphics, not compatible with VHS format. Commercial beta is used for broadcast quality video. See VHS Format. See Also VHS Format
Bible See SPECIFICATIONS GUIDE. See Also Specifications Guide
Bid 1) A statement of what one will give or take in return for something else (a price); proposal. 2) Proposal submitted by a convention & visitors bureau and/or hotel(s) to an event organizer that includes defined dates and room blocks.
Bid Document The proposal, usually prepared in response to a request for proposals or sales lead, submitted by a destination or a facility, inviting an organization to hold its event n their venue. See REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS See Also Request for Proposals
Bid Manual/Specifications Written document issued by an organization which contains requirements and conditions for future events, and solicits proposals for needed services from venues and other service providers. Often also includes primary selection and decision procedures. Same as REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL (RFP). See Also Request for Proposals
Bien Cuit (ben kwee) Well done, as in steak cooked well done.
Bill of Lading B/L. A document that establishes the terms of a contract between a shipper and a transportation company under which freight is to be moved between specified points for a specified charge. Usually prepared by the shipper on forms issued by the carrier, it serves as a document of title, a contract of carriage, and a receipt of goods. See AIR WAYBILL. See Also INLAND BILL OF LADING, OCEAN BILL OF LADING, THROUGH BILL OF LADING. See Also Air Waybill , Inland Bill of Lading , Ocean Bill of Lading , Through Bill of Lading
Billing Instructions Notice as to how charges for an event should be handled and to whom invoices should be addressed.
Billing Weight Generally refers to airfreight and van line shipments. The billing weight is the number upon which freight charges are based. The billing weight will be the actual weight or the dimensional weight, whichever is greater.
Binding Process of fastening pages of books, brochures, magazines together. See PERFECT BINDING. See Also SADDLE STITCH, SIDE-STITCH BINDING. See Also Perfect Binding , Saddle-Stitch Binding , Side- Stitch Binding
Bio A slang term for biography.
Biographical Sheet A profile, one-sheet or a short document that lists a speakers’ major credits and gives a brief history of his or her career. A biographical sheet is not a job resume or a vital. To remain true to its singular limit, a biographical sheet should be no longer than one page.
Bisque (bisk) Soup thickened with a vegetable puree; usually a shellfish soup.
Bit A unit of measurement that represents one figure or character of data. A bit is the smallest unit of storage in a computer. Bit multiples are called bytes.
Bitmap A set of bits that defines a graphic image.
Black Light Ultraviolet lighting that when applied causes phosphorescent paints to glow.
Black Tie Required dress: dinner jacket, bow tie and cummerbund for the men and formal evening dress for the women. May include national dress. In the U.S. and Canada, Black Tie indicates Tuxedo. “Black tie optional” indicates that formal dress is preferred but not required. See FORMAL DRESS. See Also WHITE TIE. See Also Formal Dress , White Tie
Black Tie Optional Men can wear a tuxedo or dark business suit; for women a long, formal gown or a shorter, elegant dress or suit.
Black-and-White A black-and-white photograph of a speaker, sometimes referred to as a B&W. See GLOSSY. See Also Glossy
Blackboard Hard, smooth, usually dark surface used for drawing or writing with chalk. See CHALKBOARD. See Also MARKER BOARD. See Also Chalkboard , Marker Board
Blanket License Used particularly in regard to music licensing, a blanket license allows the music user unlimited access to the collectives’ licensed repertory, for a contractual period of time, in exchange for a profit participation in the music user’s economic growth. See Also ASCAP, BMI, & SESAC. See Also ASCAP , BMI , SESAC
Blanket Wrap Non-crated freight shipped via van line covered with protective blankets or padding.
Bleachers Stand of tiered planks providing seating space for spectators. Can be permanent or temporary.
Bleed Ink that extends beyond edges of printed page. Area beyond usable section of blowup or copy block that allows for trimming or wrapping.
Bleeding Edge A level of technology more advanced than cutting edge or state-of-the-art. Bleeding edge equipment should be given extra attention, being careful to test and retest and not make adjustments between the rehearsal and the event.
Blind Commission A commission that is paid by a hotel to a third party that reimburses for services and comes out of the hotel sleeping room rate, but is not disclosed to the guests or the event organizer. Such commissions may fall within commercial bribery laws and if involve use of interstate commerce may also be federal law violation. See KICKBACK. See Also Kickback
Blind Fastening Method of using nails or screws to secure tongue and groove flooring into the edge of the board just above the tongue thus concealing the fastener.
Blintze Thin pancake rolled around a filling of cream cheese and chopped meat or fruit.
Blister Pack Vacuum formed transparent plastic wrap.
Block 1) Total number of sleeping rooms reserved for an event. 2) A number of rooms, seats, or space reserved in advance for a group. 3) To assign space. See ROOM BLOCK. See Also Room Block
Block 1) Number of rooms reserved for one group. 2) To assign space.
Blocked Space Sleeping rooms, exhibit, event, or other function space reserved for future use by an individual or organization.
Blocking 1) First stand-up rehearsal during which the director sets up all the action for the scene. 2) The act of reserving or assigning sleeping rooms, exhibit, event, or other function space.
Block-Out Usually refers to painting out portions of photo or negative on screen.
Blower General term for device to circulate or remove warm air from restricted areas (i.e., projector housings).
Blow-Up Enlargement of photo, art, or typography.
Blue Laws State or local laws that regulate the types of businesses that must be closed, or the types of products that may not be sold on Sundays.
Blue Sky Term for extreme design, thinking or abstract value.
Blueline Final proof copy for client’s approval before printing. Also referred to as a proof.
Blueprint A mechanical drawing of booth/stand layout, construction and specifications. See FLOOR PLAN. See Also Floor Plan
Bluetooth The process for the wireless convergence of cell phones, computers, personal digital assistants (PDA), etc. BMI Broadcast Music Incorporated. A music licensing organization that represents individuals who hold the copyrights to music written in the United States. It grants licensing agreements for the performance of music.
BO 1) Bad Order. 2) Buyers Option.
Board Body appointed by the governing board or general assembly to manage the affairs of a society, association, etc., on a day-to-day basis.
Board Meeting A meeting of the governing body of an organization.
Board of Trustees An official body which manages the affairs and administers the funds of an institution or organization.
Boarding Pass Permit to board a ship, train, plane, or other form of transportation.
Boardroom A room set permanently with a fixed table and suitable seating.
Boardroom Set-Up Seating arrangement in which rectangle or oval shaped tables are set up with chairs on both sides and ends. Often confused with HOLLOW SQUARE SET-UP. See Also Hollow Square Set-Up
Body Type Type size used for main text.
Boeuf à la Bourguignonne (boff a la borg in yone) Traditional beef stew with vegetables in burgundy wine sauce.
Boldface Darker type distinguished from lighter type faces.
Bomb Threat A claim of knowledge or belief that an explosive or incendiary bomb has been or will be placed.
Bombé Molded dessert of ice cream, whipped cream and fruit.
Bonbon Any sweet candy.
Bonded Warehouse A warehouse authorized by customs authorities for storage of goods on which payment of duties is deferred until the goods are removed.
Bonding The purchase, for a premium, of a guarantee of protection for a supplier or a customer. In the hospitality industry, certain bonding programs are mandatory.
Bone Yard Storage area where equipment is stored during an exhibition. This area may be located within the exhibition hall in an unused portion of the floor. Alternate spelling is Boneyard. See DUMP. See Also Dump
Bonus A sum given to an individual in addition to the individuals base compensation, generally as a reward for accomplishing a goal.
Book To reserve flights or accommodations for a passenger or guest.
Book of Abstracts Collection of abstracts being presented during an event which are made available to event participants for use in selecting which sessions to attend.
Booking 1) An arrangement with a company for use of facilities, goods or services. 2) For a Hotel Event, a future event contracted in writing by an event organizer with a hotel. According to guidelines from the International Association of Convention & Visitor Bureaus, the local CVB should receive a copy of the contract, or a written communication from an authorized agent of the hotel that a contract has been signed. The communication should detail dates, space requirements and estimated room block. The CVB should track estimated attendance and attendee spending for the event. 3) For a Citywide or Convention Center event, according to guidelines from the International Association of Convention & Visitor Bureaus, given the long-time frame often involved in such an event, the booking process generally takes two steps. The first is a “Confirmed Booking” where a future event is confirmed in writing (letter, booking notice), signed by an authorized agent of the event organizer and the convention center (if applicable). The written communication should detail dates, space requirements and estimated room block. The local CVB should track estimated attendance and attendee spending. The second step is a “Contracted Booking” where a future event is contracted in writing by the event organizer with the event facility (e.g., convention center). The local CVB should receive communication of this stage in writing from an authorized agent of the convention center.
Booking Policy Guidelines by which a convention center (or other venue) prioritizes reservations; may correspond to hotel rooms the event will use in the area.
Book-on-Payment BOP. Payment guaranteed by travel agency for a package reserved within cancellation period.
Boom Adjustable support for positioning microphones or lighting fixtures.
Boom Arm Attachment placed on a standard straight microphone stand which extends the reach of the stand to the side. Often used to place a microphone in front of a singer seated at a piano.
Boom Lift A motorized platform used to lift people to a given height. See SCISSOR LIFT. See Also Scissor Lift
Booth One or more standard units of exhibit space. In the US, a standard unit is generally known to be a 10′ x 10′ space (one standard booth/stand unit, equaling 100 nsf). However, if an exhibitor purchases multiple units side-byside or back-to-back, the combined space is also still referred to as a BOOTH or a STAND. Specific area assigned by management to exhibitor under contractual agreement. See STAND. See Also Stand
Booth/Stand Area Amount of floor space occupied by exhibitor. Also Called EXHIBITION AREA. See Also Exhibition Area
Booth/Stand Contractor Company which constructs or assembles exhibit booths/stands under contract with the organizing committee. See GENERAL SERVICE CONTRACTOR. See Also General Service Contractor
Booth/Stand Number Number assigned by the event’s management to designate each exhibitor’s space.
Booth/Stand Package When an exhibitor receives a variety of services for one single price (e.g. each booth/stand receives carpet 1-6’ draped table, a 20%0-watt outlet and 20%0 lbs of drayage).
Booth/Stand Personnel An individual assigned to represent the exhibitor in an assigned space.
Booth/Stand Sign 1) Identification sign indicating name, city, state and booth/stand number for each exhibitor. 2) Sign behind desk indicating service provided at that point. See FASCIA. See Also Fascia
Booth/Stand Size Dimensions of assigned exhibit space.`
Boothmanship See Also Exhibitorship
Bootleg Wages The wages above those at the prevailing rate or the union scale which an employer may pay in a tight labor market to hold or attract employees. May also refer to wages at rate below the prevailing or union rate which an employee may accept in order to obtain employment.
Bordeaux Wines Wines from the Bordeaux region in southwest France known for richness and fragrance. Red wines (also known as Clarets) include Médoc, Margaux Saint-Emilion, Pauillac and Pomerol; fine white Bordeaux include Sauternes, Barsac and Graves. A Château is a wine estate in Bordeaux; some of the best are Château Latour, Château Mouton-Rothschild, Château Lafite-Rothschild, and Château Margaux.
Border Chaser Border of lights placed around a sign or other object whose lights can be turned on and off in a sequence that make them appear to chase around the border.
Border Light Rows of lights mounted above the acting area.
Borscht Chilled soup made of chopped beets, onions, lemon juice or vinegar, salt and pepper, water or soup stock, topped with sour cream. Sometimes cabbage is added.
Bouillabaisse Wine-flavored mixed seafood stew.
Bouquetière Mix of fresh vegetables, in season.
Box Lunch Light lunch to go, in a box.
Brad Gun A nail gun. A pneumatic device which installs fasteners of various types and sizes.
Brains Trust A group of expert advisors assembled especially to answer questions of immediate or current interest.
Brainstorming Group sessions in which all participants contribute creative ideas which are not initially judged for merit.
Break Short interval between sessions at which time coffee, tea and/or other refreshments are served. See Also Coffee Break , Energy Break , Refreshment Break
Break Terminal Location at which common carriers separate consolidated freight.
Breakage Expenses budgeted for a tour but not used or extended, thus resulting in additional profit to the operator.
Break-Bulk Center Regional distribution center that consolidates and distributes multiple less than truckload (LTL) shipments headed in the same direction.
Breakdown 1) Time required to dismantle a function area. 2) To itemize estimates, invoices, and the like.
Break-Even Point The point at which revenues are equal to expenses.
Break-Out Rooms Small function rooms set up for a group within an event as opposed to a plenary or general session.
Break-Out Sessions Small group sessions, panels, workshops or presentations, offered concurrently within the event, formed to focus on specific subjects. The event is apart from the general session, but within the event format, formed to focus on specific subjects. These sessions can be arranged by basic, intermediate or advanced; or divided by interest areas or industry segment.
Breakpoint Level at which quantity discounts are allowed for volumes of freight, number of items printed, etc.
Break-Up Image or audio distortion, such as losing signal on cell phone.
Bridge Device allowing multiple outputs from the same input. Most often used to allow electronic media to take a feed of the program for use in broadcast programming.
Bridgeway 1) Area between booths/stands for audience traffic movement. 2) Space between sets of tables, chairs or booths/stands to allow passage of attendees. See GANGWAY. See Also Gangway
Brilliance Degree of intensity of colors.
Broadband Ability to transmit huge volumes of voice and video over a network or the internet, without jumpy images.
Broadcast Fax A service that transmits a fax to a large number or people, such as an entire association membership or company.
Broadcast Music, Inc. BMI. A music licensing organization that represents individuals who hold the copyrights to music written in the United States. It grants licensing agreements for the performance of music.
Brochure Printed marketing folder describing and promoting the advantages of a particular hotel, event, destination, etc.
Broker A non-asset based transportation provider that sells transportation services for commercial shippers. Brokers commonly use freight forwarders.
Brokering Bureau with customer who wants a speaker goes to an agent representing an exclusive speaker, to buy said speaker. Commission is determined by the exclusive agent.
Brushed Finish Finish primarily on aluminum or steel achieved by rubbing with wire brush or steel wool to achieve a matte quality.
Brussels Tariff Nomenclature An international system of classification for goods that was once widely used for specifying tariffs. It was changed, in name only, to the Customs Cooperation Council Nomenclature (CCCN) in 1976 and was later superceded by the Harmonized System of Tariff Nomenclature. See Also Harmonized System of Tariff Nomenclature
Brut Dry, as in wine. Not sweet.
Buck-Boost Transformer A transformer used to convert electrical voltage either up or down (such as 208v to 220v, or 240v to 220v).
Budget A statement of estimated revenues and expenditures for a specified period of time; divided into subject categories and arranged by principal areas of revenue and expense. See Also Budget Chart , Cash Flow Chart , Phased Budget
Budget Chart Estimated total of revenue and expenditure; divided into subject categories projecting cash needed to meet expenses over a specific time frame. See BUDGET. See Also Budget , Cash Flow Chart , Phased Budget
Budget Philosophy Financial goal of the event (break even, profit or lose money).
Buffer Zone 1) Block of seats on plane located between smoking and nonsmoking sections allowing for variance in the smoking and nonsmoking boundary on international flights. 2) Zone in Canada, 225 miles from the U. S. border, dividing the two tax structures applied to Y class fare. (First class, business class excluded.)
Buffet Assortment of foods, offered on a table, self-served.
Building Rules Regulations set by building management outlining procedures for their property.
Build-Up System of programming flasher to light lamps in cumulative sequence with time intervals between.
Bulk Carrier A bulk carrier is a vessel engaged in the carriage of such bulk commodities as petroleum, grain, or ores which are not yet packaged, bundled, bottled, or otherwise packed.
Bulk Fare Rate/fare available only to tour organizers or operators who purchase a specified block of seats, passes or tickets at a low, non-commissionable price and then have the responsibility of selling the block, including a commission in their marked up price for the block.
Bulkhead Seats at the front of an airline cabin facing a wall.
Bullet Catch Device for holding hinged door closed.
Bullets Large, heavy dots or symbols used in written text for emphasis or to separate points used for emphasis.
Bullnose Technique for finishing raw edge with half round molding, or shaping to half round.
Bumping 1) Removing a confirmed passenger from a full flight to make room for a passenger with higher priority.
Bunching Linen gathered together in loose folds on top of a table to provide a decorative ‘bed’.
Bungee Cord An elastic type cord used for hanging drape around columns.
Bunting Flags used collectively, or swagged strips of cloth hung as festive decorations from walls or tables.
Bureau A booking or sales company that sells the services of multiple speakers. See SPEAKERS BUREAU.
Bureau Listing A speaker grants the right to a speakers bureau to list the speaker as available. See Also Listing
Burgundy Wine Wine from the Burgundy region in eastern France which produces both red and white wines. The white wines, made from Chardonnay grapes, and the red wines, made from Pinot Noir or Gamay grapes, are considered the world’s best examples of these wines. Some of the better known Burgundy wines include those from Beaujolis, Pommard, Beaune, Meursault, Chablis, Pouilly-Fuissé, Chambertin, Corton, Romanée Conti and Echézeaux.
Burned In Copy Written copy appearing on photographs.
Bus 1) Vehicle for transporting people. 2) Connector panel which allows passage of signals. 3) To clear trash from an area where food and beverage are being served. See Also Shuttle , Motor Coach
Bus Duct Metal raceway enclosing high-voltage power feeds, suspended from overhead or in the floor, from which highvoltage power over 100 amps must be fed.
Bus Schedule Designated time locations where motor coaches will pick up and discharge passengers.
Bus Staff Personnel who remove dirty dishes and reset tables in a restaurant or hotel.
Business Agent Political, elected position within a union. Salary is not paid by service contractor, but by the union itself. See FOREMAN. See Also Foreman , Shop Steward , Union Steward
Business Attire Business suits or jackets with shirts and ties for men and day dresses or suits for women; usually taken to mean office and not recreational wear. Can include informal forms of national dress.
Business Casual A style of dress that is less formal than the standard office attire of suit and tie or dress.
Business Center Area in hotel or event venue offering various office facilities and services.
Business Center Services Services that will allow attendees to keep in touch with their office (phone, fax, message, etc.)
Business Class Class of airline service between first class and economy class with special amenities for business travelers.
Business Exchange A Web site that serves as a year-round online marketplace for buyers and sellers within a given marketplace. Such sites are also referred to as businessto- business (B2B) marketplaces, business-to-consumer (B2C) marketplaces or consumer-to-consumer (C2C), depending upon the target audience.
Business Occurring Referring to the number of groups and attendees meeting in a city during a specific time frame.
Buss Like a bus that may carry many passengers, an audio buss is a wire or circuit that may carry more than one audio signal at a time.
Busy Cluttered image on the screen.
Butler Service 1) Servers offer a variety of both hot and cold hors d’oeuvres on platters to guests at receptions. 2) A style of table service where guests serve themselves from platters presented by the server. 3) Specialized in-room service offered by a hotel.
Butt Joint Joint in carpentry achieved by nailing and gluing square ends of lumber together.
Buyer The person or group representative who signs the contract and pays for the speaker.
Buying Agent See Also Purchasing Agent
Buying Team Two or more people from the same company who jointly evaluate a product or service and either make, or influence, the buying decision.
Buzz Session Method to increase audience participation by dividing all participants in discussion groups each of which reports the group’s findings and opinions during a following plenary session.
Buzz Set-Up See Also Crescent-Round Set-Up
BX Cable BX is no longer manufactured, but the term is still common in the field. See Also MC Cable
By the Bottle Liquor served and charged for by the full bottle.
By the Drink Liquor served and charged for by the number of drinks served.
By the Person A fixed price per attendee; covers all consumption of food and beverage at a function, within a given time frame; usually includes beverages, snacks or hors d’oeuvres. In some cases, beverages are purchased by the person, while food is ordered by the piece.
By the Piece Food purchased by the individual piece, usually for a reception.
By-Laws See Also Articles and By-laws
Byte The amount of memory needed to store one character such as a letter or a number.
C&F Cost and Freight. A pricing term indicating that these costs are included in the quoted price.
C&I Cost and Insurance. A pricing term indicating that these costs are included in the quoted price.
Cabana Room adjacent to pool area, with or without sleeping facilities.
Cabaret Set-up Room arrangement with cocktail tables with chairs and a stage.
Cabaret Table Small round table, 15- 30 inches in diameter (38-76 centimeters) used for cocktail type parties. Also Called COCKTAIL TABLE. See Also Tuxedo Table
Cable Used for suspending objects and is much stronger than wire. Its thickness ranges from 1/8” to 1/2”.
Cable Modem Allows you to connect your computer to a local cable television line and receive data at high speed. Cable modems attach to a coaxial cable line to communicate with a cable modem termination system at the cable television company.
Cable Pick Rigging point or working line used to lift overhead equipment above an exhibit space or exhibit.
CAD/CAM Computer Assisted Drawing/Computer Assisted Manufacturing.
CADD Computer Aided Design and Drafting.
CAE Certified Association Executive.
CAEM Canadian Association of Exposition Managers.
Cafeteria Service A food service operation in which customers carry their own trays and select food from a display counter or counters. It is similar to a buffet, but food is served by attendants.
Calamari Italian fried squid.
Call 1) Method of securing union employees. 2) Time specified for labor to report (e.g. an 8:00 a.m. call). 3) Minimum amount for which union labor must be paid. See Also Labor Call
Call Board Theater bulletin board with announcements of rehearsals, work calls and other general theater announcements.
Call Brand Brand of liquor, distinguished from HOUSE BRAND, selected by a customer according to personal preference. Usually a higher quality than house brands. See Also House Brand
Call for Papers An invitation to submit topic ideas for the conference program. Document containing detailed instructions for submission of papers for assessment and selection by a review committee; often referred to as “Abstract Forms.” See Also Abstract , Conference Papers
Call Pay See Also Reporting Pay
Call-Out Notations on drawings or exhibits of special significance, i.e. finish, edge, color, detail or features.
Cam Metal disc, either eccentric or notched, commonly used to open and close flash switches and other mechanical devices.
Camera Card Cue card which displays script to performers on stage in order to prompt lines. See Also Cue Card , Idiot Card
Camera Chain The combination of television cameras, cables, video controls and power supply.
Camera Left and Right Directions from camera’s perspective, as opposed to STAGE LEFT AND RIGHT. See Also Stage Left and Right , Audience Left and Right , Screen Left and Right
Camera-Ready Art Materials ready for photographic reproduction.
Cam-Lock Connectors Means of connecting electrical cabling to electrical equipment.
Campus Housing Dormitory or other university/college sleeping accommodations.
Can Service Foods are prepared tableside and an assembled plate is served by the attendant.
Canadian Customs Invoice Document required by Canadian Customs identifying shipper, seller, consignee, terms, date of shipment, material being sold/shipped, classification code, quantity, unit and total prices. Additional information required on the invoice depends on shipper and consignee arrangements.
Canapé (can a pay) Hot or cold appetizer with a bread or cracker base.
Cancellation Clause Provision in a contract which outlines damages to be paid to the non-canceling party if cancellation occurs, due the canceling party’s breach of the contract.
Cancellation or Interruption Insurance Insurance that protects a event organizer against financial loss or expenses incurred when contractually specified perils necessitate canceling or relocating a event, or cause a reduction in attendance.
Cancellation/No-Show Percentage A factor included in WASH. The number of rooms that did not materialize (either canceled or no-showed on the planner date of arrival). See Also Wash
Cancelled Business A booking that subsequently did not take place, either because the event itself was cancelled or left the destination or facility before taking place. According to the International Association of Convention & Visitor Bureaus, the local CVB should track the estimated number of room nights, attendance and attendee spending and the reason associated with the cancellation.
Candelabra Ornamental branched holder for more than one candle.
Canned A slang term for a standard ”off the shelf” speech or presentation. Often, the term “ canned” is used in a negative context to refer to material that a speaker uses too often, without changes, in presentations.
Canopy 1) Drapery, awning or other roof-like covering. 2) An overhead projecting cover.
Cantilever A horizontal beam or piece supported on one end and extending beyond its vertical support.
Canvas Material used for outdoor banners.
Cap Nut A piece of hardware with an internal screw thread that is used on the end of a bolt when a finished appearance is desired.
Cap Strip Piece of finished material used to cover end framing.
Capacitor Electronic circuit component part designed to store electricity.
Capacity Maximum number of people allowed in any given area.
Capacity Control Restriction on the number of seats available at a particular fare.
Cappuccino A hot beverage of 1/3 espresso, 1/3 steamed milk, 1/3 foamed milk.
Captain Person in charge of banquet service at food functions; supervisor of the servers.
Caption See Also Cutline
Carbon Neutral Travel Carbon Neutral is the point at which enough trees are planted to offset completely emissions from a manufacturing process, distribution, product usage, building or individual.
Cargo Insurance Additional coverage protecting the owner of goods for loss or damage while goods are in a carrier’s possession. Recommended for all international shipments.
Carnet (carnay) A customs document permitting the holder to carry or send merchandise temporarily into certain foreign countries (for display, demonstration or similar purposes) without paying duties or posting bonds.
Carnival Mobile enterprise principally devoted to offering amusement or entertainment to the public in, upon or by means of portable amusement rides or devices or temporary structures in any number or combination, whether with other structures or forms of public attraction.
Carousel Tray Circular holder used for projecting 35mm slides.
Carpaccio An appetizer of thin shavings of raw beef fillet, often drizzled with olive oil and lemon juice or served with a mayonnaise or mustard sauce and often topped with capers and/or onions. Sometimes tuna, or other meat, is used in place of the beef.
Carpenter Skilled person used for fabrication and installation of displays; labor to perform display uncrating, installation, dismantling, recrating. (Note: this type of labor is performed by individuals with a variety of job titles throughout the world).
Carpet Knife Knife used for cutting carpet.
Carpet Tape Double-faced tape used to adhere edge of carpet to floor or to repair carpet tears. See Also Duct Tape
Carriage Bolt A bolt with a square shank next to the head to allow tightening in wood without tools.
Carrier 1) Exclusive use of all or some space on an airplane, bus, ship, or other vehicle for a special period of time and for a specific itinerary. 2) Transportation contractor moving passengers or freight (van line, common carrier, rail car, airplane).
Cartage 1) Fee charged for transporting freight between destinations. 2) Short distance hauling of exhibit properties.
Cartage Agent Ground service operator who provides pickup and delivery in areas not served directly by air carrier.
Cartons Small shipping containers made of cardboard.
Case Study An intensive analysis of an individual unit or situation.
Cases Shipping containers usually made of plastic or fiberglass.
Cash Accounting A system in which revenue and expenses are counted as they are actually received.
Cash Against Documents CAD Payment for goods in which a commission house or other intermediary transfers title documents to the buyer upon payment in cash.
Cash Bar Private room bar set up where guests pay for drinks individually.
Cash Based Accounting An accounting method that enters income and expenses into the books at the time when payment is received or expenses incurred.
Cash Flow The transfer of monies into and out of an enterprise.
Cash Flow Chart Estimate total of revenue and expenditure; divided into subject categories projecting cash needed to meet expenses over a specific time frame. See Also Budget Chart , Phased Budget
Cash in Advance CIA. Payment for goods in which the price is paid in full before shipment is made. This method is usually used only for small purchases, for poor credit risks or when the goods are built to order.
Cash Registration Full payment for anticipated room and tax charges at registration; credit for incidentals not extended.
Cash Reservation Payment with reservation for full or part of stay.
Cash with Order CWO. Payment for goods in which the buyer pays when ordering and in which the transaction is binding on both parties.
Cassette Self-enclosed two-reel tape module — video or audio.
Casual Attire Sports shirt (possibly with jacket) for men; resort wear for women.
Casualty Rooms that were reserved by attendees but not used; often refers to “no shows” or last minute cancellations.
Casualty Insurance A type of insurance that is primarily concerned with the legal liability for losses caused by injury to persons or damage to the property of others.
Category Cable (Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable or UTP) Usually referred to as Cat 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 cable. Cat 5 transmits data the fastest. Fast Ethernet requires enhanced Cat 5 cable or Cat 5 to operate at its full potential. See Also Backbone
Caterer 1) A food service vendor, often used to describe a vendor who specializes in banquets and theme parties. 2) An exclusive food & beverage contractor within a facility.
Catering The provision of food and beverages.
Catering Sales Manager Staff person responsible for selling and servicing group and local food and beverage functions.
Catwalk Walkway above auditorium used for hanging lights and sound equipment.
Caviar Sturgeon roe (eggs); lightly salted. The lighter the color, the better quality and the more expensive.
CBT Computer-Based Training.
CC Current Cost.
CDME Certified Destination Marketing Executive. A certification of the International Association of Convention and Visitor Bureaus.
CD-ROM Compact Disk-Read Only Memory. A disk that can hold many times the data of a traditional floppy disk.
CDX Blemish-free wood surface.
CEC Continuing Education Credit. Requirement of many professional groups by which members must certify participation in formal educational programs designed to maintain their level of ability beyond their original certification date. See Also Continuing Education Unit
Ceiling Decor Suspended decorations to enhance appearance of hall, or create a more intimate environment by ‘lowering’ the ceiling.
Ceiling Height Maximum height of ceiling of an exhibition hall or event room. Dimensions quoted by halls and hotels often do not take into account any light fixtures hanging from the ceiling.
CEIR Center for Exhibition Industry Research. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Celastic Material formed to shape by using treated fabrics, resins, and adhesives.
Celebrity Speaker A speaker who is booked for his/her name value.
Celotex Material composed of compressed paper and adhesives.
Celsius A temperature scale (Also Called CENTIGRADE) where 0° is freezing and 100° is the boiling point. To convert Celsius temperatures to Fahrenheit, multiply the Celsius figure by 9, divide by 5, and add 32.
Centerpiece Decoration for the center of a banquet table.
Centigrade See Also Celsius
Central Console The desk from which technicians operate microphones and audiovisual equipment.
Century Weight CWT. A measurement for exhibit freight, usually 100 pounds.
Certificate in Meeting Management CMM. Certification program offered by Meeting Professionals International; global certification in meeting management that focuses on strategic thinking and actions for senior level meeting professionals.
Certificate of Inspection A document certifying that merchandise (such as perishable goods) was in good condition immediately prior to its shipment.
Certificate of Insurance A document provided by an insurance company as proof that a policy has been issued and coverage is in effect.
Certificate of Manufacture A statement (often notarized) in which a producer of goods certifies that the manufacturing has been completed and the goods are now at the disposal of the buyer.
Certificate of Origin A document, required by certain countries for tariff purposes, certifying as to the country of origin of specified goods.
Certification Program and process by which a participant completes proscribed training and passes an assessment.
Certified Association Executive CAE. Certification program offered by the American Society of Association Executives. Certification designed to elevate professional standards, enhance individual performance and designate those who demonstrate knowledge essential to the practice of association management.
Certified Destination Marketing Executive CDME A certification of the International Association of Convention and Visitor Bureaus.
Certified Exhibition Manager CEM An exhibition management professional, as officially designated by the International Association of Exhibition Management.
Certified Hospitality Marketing Executive CHME A certification program offered by the Hospitality Sales & Marketing Association International.
Certified Hospitality Sales Professional CHSP A certification program offered by the American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute.
Certified Hotel Administrator CHA A certification program offered by the American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute.
Certified Incentive Travel Executive CITE A designation offered by the Society of Incentive & Travel Executives (SITE).
Certified Manager of Exhibits CME An exhibit industry professional, as officially designated by the Trade Show Exhibitors Association
Certified Meeting Professional CMP Certification program offered by the Convention Industry Council. This designation certifies competency in 27 areas of meeting management through application and examination.
Certified Speaking Professional CSP Accredited designation offered by the National Speakers Association. This designation is earned for extensive, documented speaking experience and client satisfaction.
Certified Special Events Professional CSEP Accredited designation offered by the International Special Event Society. This designation is earned for professional achievement in event management.
Certified Weight An official weight issued from a Certified Weight Master. This individual certifies a shipment’s weight as the only acceptable weight for transportation and drayage at a tradeshow. Weights can be determined by weighing the vehicle heavy (full) and light (empty), or by weighing each piece.
CESSE Council of Engineering and Scientific Society Executives. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
CEU See Also Continuing Education Unit CHA Certified Hotel Administrator
Chafing Dish Used to warm or cook food, it consists of a container (usually metal) with a heat source directly beneath it, which can come from a candle, electricity or solid fuel (e.g. Sterno). There’s often a larger dish that is used as a water basin (like the bottom of a double boiler) into which the dish containing the food is placed to prevent food from burning.
Chai Spiced tea with cream and sweetener.
Chain Drive Power transmission via chain for the movement of an object.
Chain Hoist Motor Motor that pulls a chain through itself in order to lift a load.
Chain Lock Protective or security device which connects by a chain a closed and ajar door to doorjamb. Also Called SECURITY LOCK.
Chair A person selected to preside over a committee, a conference session or entire an conference.
Chalkboard See Also Blackboard , Marker Board
Chamfer Technique of reducing sharp corner of lumber by sanding or machining edge.
Change Order Facility form to advise departments of changes in reservations or functions.
Channel ) Individual signal path through a system which has more than one such path. A special line reserved to a specific usage (e.g. speech on walkie talkies, etc.). 2) Generally, any material milled or extruded in a continuous U-shape.
Character Generator Electronic device that allows words or characters to be displayed on a television image.
Charger Another name for a larger plate, used as a base plate or platter.
Charrette The binding together of designers, planners, and business professionals to discuss development concepts and plans. Freely sharing ideas in a relaxed, yet intense atmosphere — a brainstorming session is at the heart of a successful Charrette. It is a planning process, ideal for entertainment and recreational projects.
Chart of Accounts A detailed list of the individual line items that make up the revenue and expense categories in a budget. A numbering system used to identify every line item in a budget, so income and expenses are posted to the correct accounts.
Charter 1) Exclusive use of all or some space on an airplane, bus, ship, or other vehicle for a special period of time and for a specific itinerary. 2) To create a new association, organization or chapter of an association or organization.
Charter Operations 1) In terms of motor carrier certificates, the transportation of groups organized by someone other than the carrier, and which are sold the exclusive use of the vehicle. 2) An operator authorized to arrange transportation in charter operations.
Charter Party A written contract, usually on a special form, between the owner of a vessel and a charterer who rents use of the vessel or a part of its freight space. The contract generally includes the freight rates and the ports involved in the transportation.
Charts Diagrams, music books, sheets, or scores.
Chaser Mild drink taken after hard liquor.
Chaser Flasher/Lights Electronic device to accomplish rapid sequential lighting.
Chat A real time synchronous electronic discussion forum where participants can communicate with instructors, mentors and peers to simulate the classroom environment.
Chateaubriand Thick tenderloin steak, cut from the center or ‘barrel’ of the loin
Chaud( show) Hot.
Chaud Froid (show fwah) Hot/cold jellied sauce used to decorate buffet show pieces, such as hams or turkeys.
Cheat Varying the positions of actors to achieve a better TV picture.
Check-In Procedure for hotel guest arrival and registration.
Check-In Time Time at which hotel guests may check in and occupy sleeping rooms.
Check-Out Procedure for hotel guest departure of their sleeping room including account settlement.
Check-Out Time Time set by facility when hotel guests are required to vacate sleeping rooms.
Chef’s Choice Selection of food items to best complement the entrée. The selection is being left up to the chef.
Chef’s Table The opportunity to sample a menu in advance of the event, usually in the company of the chef. Also refers to a food event held in the kitchen where the attendees interact with the chef and kitchen staff.
Chemise With skins, as in boiled potatoes in their skins.
Cherries Jubilee Flaming dessert served over vanilla ice cream.
Cherry Picker Equipment capable of lifting a person or persons to a given height. See Also High Jacker, Man Lift, JLG, Scissor Lift, Genie Lift, HI LOW, Forklift/Forktruck
Chevron Type of cloth used for backdrops.
Chevron Set-Up Seating arrangement in which chairs are arranged in rows slanted in a V shape and separated by a center aisle. They face the head table or speaker.. See Also Herringbone Set-Up , V-Shape Set-Up
Chief Executive Officer CEO The principal officer responsible for overall administration of an organization.
Chief Financial Officer CFO Executive responsible for financial affairs of an organization.
Chief Operating Officer COO Executive responsible for day-to-day operations of an organization.
Chiffonade Foods served with shredded vegetables, such as lettuce salads with shredded carrots and/or red cabbage.
Chinoise French word for Chinese.
Chipping Distortion of audio signals caused by input signal peaks or voltage amplitudes which cause a circuit to attempt to exceed its own maximum voltage capabilities.
CHME Certified Hospitality Marketing Executive A certification program offered by the Hospitality Sales & Marketing Association International.
Chop Suey Chinese stew, with meat or fish, plus bamboo sprouts, onions, rice and water chestnuts.
Chow Mein Chinese dish of bean sprouts, celery, mushrooms, and a meat or fish served over crispy or pan-fried soft noodles.
CIC Convention Industry Council (formerly the Convention Liaison Council). A federation of national and international organizations representing individuals, firms or properties involved in the meetings, conventions, exhibitions and travel and tourism industries.
CIF Cost, Insurance, Freight. A pricing term indicating that these costs are included in the quoted price.
CIF&C Cost, Insurance, Freight, and Commission. A pricing term indicating that these costs are included in the quoted price.
CIF&E Cost, Insurance, Freight, and Exchange. A pricing term indicating that these costs are included in the quoted price.
Cioppino An Italian fish stew made from tomatoes, white wine, and clams, shrimp, crab, calamari, swordfish, fresh basil and garnished with a garlic crouton.
Circle Trip A journey with stopovers that returns to the point of departure without retracting its route.
Circline Circular fluorescent fixture.
CITE Certified Incentive Travel Executive. A designation offered by the Society of Incentive & Travel Executives (SITE).
City Central Association of American Federation of Labor – Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) local unions in a city or metropolitan area.
City Guide A freelance guide who comes aboard a motorcoach to give an informed overview of the city or attraction to be toured.
City Tour A sightseeing trip through a city, usually lasting a half-day or full day, during which a guide points out that city’s highlights. See Also Tour
Citywide Event An event that requires the use of a convention center or event complex, as well as multiple hotels in the host city.
Clamp-On Fixture Electrical fixture with C-clamp device for attaching to display.
Clamp-On Lights A light fixture that has a clamping device that allows it to attach to a wall or pole. They are 120% watts to 220% watts.
Classification Commodity tariff used to classify shipments. Shipments are evaluated by their density, sensitivity, packaging and other criteria. Rates are assessed on a shipment after a commodity classification is established.
Classroom Set-Up Seating arrangement in which rows of tables with chairs face the front of a room and each person has a space for writing. Also Called SCHOOLROOM SET-UP.
Classroom Table Rectangular table, often narrower than regular tables and 30-inches high. Can be 6′ or 8′ long and 18- or 24-inches wide.
Clause A detailed section of a contract pertaining to a specific issue.
Clean Bill of Lading A receipt for goods issued by a carrier with an indication that the goods were received in apparent good order and condition, without damages or other irregularities. See Also Foul Bill of Lading
Clean Draft A draft to which no documents have been attached
Clear Date/Time Generally the last point in time at which an exhibitorappointed carrier must be in line or at the dock in order to be loaded after the close of the show.
Clearance Clear space between the passing object and sides or roof of a passageway.
Cleats Wood strips on sides of shipping container for sliding and handling purposes. Also wood strips on a structure for attaching another fixture or structure.
Climate Neutral Climate Neutral products or services reduce and offset the greenhouse gases generated at each stage of their life-cycle on a cradle-to-cradle basis: the sourcing of their materials, their manufacturing or production, their distribution, use, and ultimate end-of-life disposition.
Clinic Workshop-type educational experience where participants learn by doing.
Clogged Head Buildup of oxide on the video recorder head causing noise, breakup, or loss of picture.
Closed See Also Full House
Closed Circuit Video A video distribution system which limits reception of an image to those receivers which are directly connected to the origination point by coaxial cable or microwave link.
Closed-End (Incentive travel) Number of winners are limited by a predetermined amount.
Closing Ceremony Final activities at an event which occur during the closing/last session.
Closing Session The final session of an event in which the subjects which have been discussed are summarized and possible conclusions reached and announced.
Cluster 1) Enclosed lights used to illuminate the top of film and stage sets. 2) Group of speakers mounted in auditoriums, arenas, and theaters.
CMAA Club Managers Association of America.
CMP 1) Certified Meeting Professional. 2) Complete Meeting Package at conference centers; includes lodging, all food and beverage, support services, including audio visual equipment, room rental, etc.
Coach 1) Individual who helps develop presentation skills. 2) Class of airline service.
Coach Fare Economy airline fare.
Coat Rack Frame to hold wearing apparel, usually on hangers. See Also Garment Rack , Costumer
Coated Stock Paper manufactured with coatings of clay or other materials to give the base paper a smooth, often glossy, surface.
Coaxial Cable Cable used to transmit audio and television signals.
Cobra Head Extension Cord A two-wire extension cord that has the capability of having two of more items plugged into the end. These cords are not allowed in some convention facilities (e.g. Las Vegas) due to the possible overload and tripping of breakers. They are also considered a fire hazard.
Cocktail Attire Men should wear nothing less formal than a blazer and slacks; for women, dressy pantsuits or short, dressier dresses.
Cocktail Table Small round table, 15- 30 inches in diameter (38-76 centimeters) used for cocktail type parties. Also Called CABARET TABLE. See Also Tuxedo Table
COD Cash on Delivery, Collection on Delivery.
CODEC Compression/Decompression or Coder/Decoder. Videoconferencing standard, included in hardware and/or software, used to compress or code video, audio, and data signals for transmission and decompress or decode the signal at the other end of the transmission.
Coeur (coor) Heart (e.g. ‘hearts of lettuce’ ).
Coffee Break See Also Break , Energy Break , Refreshment Break
Cold Call Sales call made without an appointment.
Collaborative Tools Email, bulletin boards, live chat, instant messaging and other technologies that allow participants to communicate electronically with other participants.
Collateral Assets that can be pledged to guarantee a loan. The promotional material used by the salespeople to support or corroborate the features and benefits of the item being sold.
Collection and Consolidation Service Service performed for a shipper in which a number of LTL shipments are picked up or received and forwarded as one truckload shipment.
Collective Agreement Written agreement between an employer and a union specifying the terms and conditions of employment for workers, the status of the union, and the procedure for settling disputes arising during the contract term. See Also Union Contract
Collective Bargaining The process of negotiation between an employer or employers and an employee organization, union or unions to reach agreement on the terms and conditions of employment for a specified period.
Colloquium An informal meeting for the purpose of discussion; usually of an academic or research nature and in order to ascertain areas of mutual interest through exchange of ideas. Conducted as and when convenient, but with little regularity.
Co-Location To hold two related events at the same time and in the same place.
Color Key Proof Proof copy for approval of color positioning.
Color Separation See Also Four-Color Separation
Column A pillar in a facility which supports the roof or other structures. Usually refers to pillars in function space and exhibition halls and is typically denoted on floor plan as a solid square.
Combo Small group of musicians such as a small jazz or dance band.
Commando Cloth A woven fabric with a nap, similar to Duvetyne, but heavier, completely light blocking and with a coarser nap. A substitute for velour, most often used for masking drapes. See Also Duvetyne
Commercial Invoice An itemized statement furnished to a purchaser by a seller and usually specifying the price of goods or services and the terms of sale.
Commission A payment to a sales representative for meeting or exceeding a sales revenue goal. Or a payment made to an individual or organization for bringing business to another individual or organization.
Commissionable Rate Commitment A contract in which the room rate to be charged to attendees includes a commission to be paid to either the sponsoring group or a third party such as a travel agent or independent event planning or site selection organization.
Commitment Agreement between buyer and seller to purchase/sell the particular product. See Also Letter of Agreement , Letter of Agreement.
Committee A group of people appointed for a specific purpose.
Committee of Honor Committee of individuals eminent in the related field whose names are lent to an event by way of endorsement.
Common Carrier Transportation company which handles crated materials; an agency or business that is available to the public for transportation of persons, goods, or messages; usually referring to freight transportation on regularly scheduled trucks or airplanes.
Communication Center Area in a venue for telephone, fax, Internet, telex or teleconferencing facilities.
Commuter Airline Airline connecting small communities with large airports.
Compensation 1) Payment for a thing of value tendered or a service rendered, usually refers to base salary plus benefits, bonus and/or commission. 2) Something, usually in the form of a monetary payment, that makes up for a loss.
Complete Meeting Package An all-inclusive plan offered by conference centers; includes lodging, all meals and support services.
Complimentary Comp. Service, space or item provided at no charge.
Complimentary Ratio The number of rooms provided at no cost based on the number of occupied rooms.
Complimentary Registration Waiver of registration fees.
Complimentary Room A sleeping room or function room provided to an individual or organization at no cost. See Also Complimentary Ratio
Comprehensive Layout Artist’s precise rendering of proposed piece showing paper and color selection, size and placement of type, illustrations and photographs.
Computer Card See REGISTRATION CARD KEY. See Also Key Card
Computer Data Projection The projection of a computer signal from a personal computer, laptop or other computer device onto a screen from a LCD or equivalent projector for viewing by audience. See Also LCD
Computer-Based Training CBT Any instructional event that can be accessed by a stand alone computer – usually CD-ROM based.
Computerized Registration Automated registration records.
Con Carne With meat, (e.g. ‘chili con carne’).
Concert Rider See Also Rider
Concessions 1) Merchandise or refreshments sold on site, to individuals, in conjunction with an event. 2) Contractual agreement where one party provides something of value to the other party in exchange for something else, pending certain conditions.
Concierge 1) Facility staff which provides special services such as tickets to local events, transportation, and tour arrangements. 2) Designated area in facility providing special amenities and services to guests.
Conclave Gathering of a group with shared or special interests.
Concurrent Sessions Multiple sessions scheduled at the same time. Programs on different themes or subjects offered simultaneously.
Condensed Type Narrow or slender type permitting greater number of characters per line.
Conference 1) Participatory meeting designed for discussion, factfinding, problem solving and consultation. 2) An event used by any organization to meet and exchange views, convey a message, open a debate or give publicity to some area of opinion on a specific issue. No tradition, continuity or periodicity is required to convene a conference. Although not generally limited in time, conferences are usually of short duration with specific objectives. Conferences are generally on a smaller scale than congresses. See Also Congress , Convention
Conference Call Telephone or video connection between three or more persons.
Conference Center A facility that provides a dedicated environment for events, especially small events. May be certified by the International Association of Conference Centers.
Conference Handbook A manual which provides information about a conference. Contents would include descriptions of programs, information on participants, agendas, schedules of events, speaker notes, and logistical information.
Conference Officer/Organizer Title generally conferred upon the chief administrator of the entire event.
Conference Pack/Kit Generally a comprehensive collection of conference documentation and/or event materials within a bag, binder, envelope or folder. Also called information kit. See Also Registration Kit
Conference Papers Abstracts of lectures to be presented during a conference compiled in the book of abstracts. See Also Abstract , Call for Papers
Conference Reminder An email, bulk fax, or bulk mail broadcast that provides attendees and prospects with the latest news and information about an upcoming event. Such reminders are usually distributed on an opt-in basis. See Also Email Alert
Conference Report An official summary of conference events.
Conference Service Coordinator Primary contact person assigned to an event in a convention center.
Conference Set-Up Seating arrangement in which rectangular or oval tables are set up with chairs placed around all sides. It is often confused with Hollow Square Set-up. The preferred industry term is BOARDROOM SET-UP.
Configuration 1) Arrangement of seats within an aircraft. See PITCH. 2) The layout of tables, chairs and other equipment in a function room. See FLOOR PLAN. 3) Sleeping berth in a day/night compartment on a European train. See Also Pitch , Floor Plan
Confirmation Oral or written agreement by a facility to accept a request for accommodation; to be binding the agreement must state the intent of the parties, the particular date, the rate, type of accommodations, and the number to be accommodated; oral agreement may require a credit card number. See Also Confirmed Reservation
Confirmation Letter Letter to speakers, acknowledging that a commitment has been made between the speaker and the organization, outlining information about the event.
Confirmation Number Proof of Registration, i.e., a reservation number that will be accepted by the hotel holding the room.
Confirmed Letter of Credit A letter of credit, issued by a foreign bank, whose validity has been confirmed by an American bank. An exporter whose payment terms are a confirmed letter of credit is assured of payment even if the foreign buyer or the foreign bank defaults. See Also Letter of Credit
Confirmed Reservation Oral or written agreement by a facility to accept a request for an accommodation; to be binding the agreement must state the intent of the parties, the particular date, the rate, type of accommodations, and the number to be accommodated; oral agreement may require guest credit card number. See Also Confirmation
Conflict of Interest Statement Written document requiring individuals to disclose any conflicts of interest that may be created by their involvement with an organization.
Confrontation Efforts of a dissident group to obstruct the conduct of an event.
Congress 1) The regular coming together of large groups of individuals, generally to discuss a particular subject. A congress will often last several days and have several simultaneous sessions. The length of time between congresses is usually established in advance of the implementation stage, and can be either pluri-annual or annual. Most international or world congresses are of the former type while national congresses are more frequently held annually. 2) Meeting of an association of delegates or representatives from constituent organizations. 3) European term for convention. See Also Conference , Convention
Congress Auxiliaries Those persons who work in the congress’ auxiliary services and have been identified by the organizer and the contracted firm (if any) whose names are clearly stated in a previously prepared register.
Congress Card Admission card confirming a booking and registration to an event. See Also Admission Card
Congress Travel Agent Travel agent specializing in handling incoming or outgoing event participants and additional travel arrangements including pre- and post-tours.
Connecting Rooms Two or more guestrooms with private connecting doors permitting access between rooms without having to go into the corridor.
Consecutive Interpretation Oral translation of several phrases or entire speeches from one language to another. Speaker pauses between phrases to allow for interpretation. See Also Interpretation, Interpretation in Relay, Simultaneous Interpretation, Translation, Whispered Interpretation, Wireless Infrared Interpreting System
Consideration The inducement to a contract. The cause, motive, price, or impelling influence which induces a contracting party to enter a contract.
Consignee Recipient. The person, people, or organization to whom something is delivered or addressed. See Also Consignor
Consignment Delivery of merchandise from a seller (the consignor) to an agent (the consignee) under agreement that the agent sell the merchandise for the account of the seller. The consignor retains title to the goods until the consignee has sold them. The consignee sells the goods for commission and remits the net proceeds to the consignor.
Consignor A person who sends freight. See Also Consignee
Consolidate 1) Shipping freight to a central depot where several loads bound for the same destination are put together before being shipped to that destination. 2) Merging events, jobs, tasks, etc.
Consortium A loosely knit group of independently owned and managed companies, e.g. destination management companies (DMCs), tour operators, hotels, etc., with a joint marketing and distribution process.
Construction Drawing A drawing that gives detailed diagrams and instructions for building an exhibit.
Consular Declaration A formal statement, made to the consul of a country, describing goods to be shipped.
Consular Invoice A document, required by some countries, describing a shipment of goods and showing information such as the consignor, consignee, and value of the shipment. Certified by a consular official of the foreign country, it is used by that country’s customs officials to verify the value, quantity, and nature of the shipment.
Consultant Individual who provides counsel and assistance to a client on specific assignments. For very large projects, a consulting firm may be retained rather than a individual.
Consumer Show Exhibition that is open to the public, usually requiring an entrance fee.. See Also Exhibition , Gate Show , Public Show , Trade Show
Consummé (con sue may) Clear soup, served hot or chilled.
Contact Cement Bonding agent usually used for cementing plastic laminates to wood.
Contact Management System A software program that matches contacts with prospects.
Container Detention A charge that is assessed when the container is removed from the carrier’s control but is not returned within the allowable free time. See Also Pier Demurrage
Content The educational component of an event. See Also Conference
Continental Breakfast Light morning meal consisting of pastries, juices, and hot beverages. Usually served buffet style.
Continental Buffet Buffet consisting of pastries, juices, and hot beverages.
Continental Plan A room rate that includes a continental breakfast. See Also American Plan, Bermuda Plan, Demi-Pension, European Plan, Modified American Plan
Continental U.S. The contiguous 48 states, not including Alaska, Hawaii or any US Territories.
Contingency Plan An alternative plan that may replace the original plan when circumstances change.
Continuing Education Structured educational and training experiences for personal or professional development.
Continuing Education Unit CEU. Requirement of many professional groups by which members must certify participation in formal educational programs designed to maintain their level of ability beyond their original certification date. CEUs are nonacademic credit. One CEU is awarded for each 10 contact hours in an accredited program.
Continuity Smooth flow of action and narration from scene to scene.
Contract An agreement between two or more parties that creates in each party a duty to do or not do something and a right to performance of the other’s duty or a remedy for the breach of the other’s duty. See Also Commitment , Letter of Agreement
Contract Carrier Trucking company that enters into a specific contract with a shipper to transport goods for an agreed-upon price. Contained within the contract are all the terms and conditions, liability, transit times, etc. The contract carrier is required to secure authorization from the DOT for such operations.
Contracting A system in which all or part of the product or the work to be done is sublet to contractors.
Contractor An individual or organization providing services to a trade show and/or its exhibitors. May be Official (appointed by show management) or Independent (appointed by exhibitor). Typically refers to either a general service contractor or specialty contractor. See Also Decorator , A/V Contractor , Drayage Contractor , Exclusive Contractor , Exhibition Service Contractor , General Service Contractor
Contractor Logistics Services This is the transportation service division of the general show contractor. They handle/arrange for all modes of transportation (air, motor and van line), but the services are still executed by the traditional motor, van line and air carriers.
Contrast Difference of intensity of color between light and dark areas of a picture, fabric, etc.
Contributed Paper Written transcript provided after acceptance of the submitted abstract and usually the basis for a speech or demonstration.
Contributor One who presents a paper, either verbally or in a visual form (e.g. a poster).
Control Track Section of video tape which controls the speed of the tape.
Controlled Economy Countries Countries whose governments strictly regulate the national economy.
Controversy Panel To stimulate interest and debate, arrange for two or three views of a controversial issue to be presented.
Convener Member of committee in charge of convening participants.
Convention An event where the primary activity of the attendees is to attend educational sessions, participate in meetings/discussions, socialize, or attend other organized events. There is a secondary exhibit component. See Also Meeting , Exhibition , Trade Show , Consumer Show
Convention and Visitors Bureau CVB. Convention and visitor bureaus are not-for-profit organizations charged with representing a specific destination and helping the long-term development of communities through a travel and tourism strategy. Convention and visitor bureaus are usually membership organizations bringing together businesses that rely on tourism and events for revenue. For visitors, CVBs are like a key to the city. As an unbiased resource, CVBs can serve as a broker or an official point of contact for convention and event planners, tour operators and visitors. They assist planners with event preparation and encourage business travelers and visitors alike to visit local historic, cultural and recreational sites.
Convention Center Facility that combines an exhibition space with a substantial number of smaller event spaces. The purpose of these buildings is to host trade shows, public shows, conventions, large food functions and other functions related to the convention industry. They may be purpose built or converted and municipally or privately owned. See Also Exhibition Center , Facility , Hall
Convention Rate Rates assigned for a particular group. This is usually a discounted rate.
Convention Services Manager CSM Professional at a hotel, convention center or convention bureau who is responsible for event operations management on all levels.
Convertibility A currency is usually described as convertible if the holder can exchange it freely for another currency.
Cookie A file sent to a Web browser by a Web server that is used to record one’s activities.
Coordinating Committee Committee in charge of coordinating the organization of the event.
Coordination Fee A charge for professional services.
Co-President One of two or more persons appointed as president on an equal footing with the official president.
Co-Promotion Joint participation in the costs and profits from an event.
Copy 1) All original material being prepared for reproduction. 2) Reproduction of original material.
Copyfitting Determining space required and type size for copy to fit allotted space.
Copyright Federal laws that allow for the ownership of intellectual property (writings, art, music). Copy-written material cannot be used without the owner’s permission or the payment of royalty fees.
Coquilles St. Jacques (co keel san jock) Scallops prepared in butter; served in a scalloped, shell-shaped ramekin.
Cordial A liqueur usually served after dinner, e.g. Amaretto, Chambourd, Frangelica, etc., or a shell-shaped ramekin. See Also Liqueur
Corkage The charge placed on beer, liquor, and wine brought into the facility but purchased elsewhere. The charge sometimes includes glassware, ice, and mixers.
Corner Booth/Stand An exhibit space with exposure on at least two aisles. Some organizations charge premiums for corner booths/stands.
Cornucopia 1) Pastry roll shaped like a horn, filled with whipped cream and nuts. 2) A large paper or plastic horn filled with fresh fruits spilling over onto the table. Also called a horn of plenty.
Corporate Exhibit An institutional exhibit telling the story of the company without intentionally marketing the product or service.
Corporate Meeting Gathering of employees or representatives of a commercial organization. Usually, attendance is required and travel, room and most meal expenses are paid for by the organization.
Corporate Planner Meeting planner who works for a corporation.
Corporate Rate Special rate for sleeping rooms or other goods and services that is made available to business travelers. These rates may vary by corporation, depending on the negotiated agreement.
Corporate Show An exhibition produced by a corporation where exhibits are limited to products and services of that corporation or its marketing partners; no competitors participate. See Also Exhibition , Trade Show
Corporate Travel The market segment comprised of groups or individuals that work for a given company and are traveling for business reasons at the company’s expense.
COS Cash on Shipment.
Cost Center An account (usually a number) to which expenses for a function or activity are charged.
Cost Charge per Square Meter/Foot Basic charge for a particular unit of measurement.
Cost Control Process of maintaining levels of expenditure within the budget.
Cost of Goods The direct costs involved in producing a product or service which usually includes labor and materials.
Cost of Sales The cost of goods plus the expenses involved in selling and delivering the product or service.
Cost Plus Basic charges for a service plus the markup or margin to ensure margin and profit for service provider.
Costing Process of itemizing and calculating all costs the tour operator will pay on a given tour. Usually the function of the operations manager.
Costumer 1) Hat and coat rack. 2) A person or organization that makes, sells, or rents costumes.
Couchette Sleeping berth in a day/night compartment on a European train.
Council Group of members responsible for establishing and enforcing the rules and regulations.
Count 1) Total number of individuals in attendance at a function or event for a given period. 2) Total number of exhibitors for a given period.
Counter A working cabinet for display, demonstration, or registration.
Countermount Technique for mounting material to rear of panel equal to weight and consistency to face mounted material. This prevents warping.
Countersink Technique of recessing heads of screws and nails below the surface.
Countervailing Duty An extra duty imposed by the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury to offset export grants, bounties, or subsidies paid to foreign suppliers in certain countries by the governments of those countries as an incentive to exports.
Country of Origin Denotes country of parental nationality.
Coupon Ticket which travelers exchange for prepaid services such as accommodations, meals and tours. See Also Voucher
Courier European term for a travel professional who supervises arrival details and escorts tours.
Cover 1) Table setting for one person. 2) Actual number of meals, or servings, served at a food function. 3) Dome placed over a plate, used to keep food warm/cold and measure the number of meals served at a food function.
Cover Charge A fee, usually a flat amount per person, charged to patrons to cover the cost of music and entertainment.
Cover Plate A protective, removable panel used with self-contained exhibits in transit.
Cover Stock Heavy-weight paper used for covers of brochures.
Covered Area Any area that covers an exhibit space and prevents the building fire sprinkler from discharging water unobstructed to the floor. This includes single story exhibits with ceilings, upper deck exhibits, roofs, overhead lighting installations and any material hanging or installed overhead that is not recognized as acceptable under fire sprinkler systems fire codes.
Covers Actual number of meals served at a catered meal function or in a restaurant. See Also Audience Count , Head Count
CPAE Council of Peers Award for Excellence; inductee into the CPAE Speaker Hall of Fame.
CPCE Certified Professional Catering Executive. A certification program offered by the National Association of Catering Executives (NACE).
CR Carrier’s Risk
Craft Union A labor organization, the membership in which is restricted to individuals possessing or working at a specific skill or trade (e.g. diemaking, carpentry, or plumbing).
Crafting List Names the content of what is enclosed inside a crate (e.g. exhibit pieces, carpet, etc.).
Craftsperson A skilled individual who provides actual services on the show floor. Usually a unionized worker.
Crate Wooden box for packing and shipping exhibits.
Crated Exhibit An exhibit that is transported from event to event in crates (small to huge wooden boxes). Crates make handling the exhibit easier, and minimize damage during material handling. In most cases, individual pieces are jigged in place within the crates.
Crating List Names the contents of what is enclosed inside a crate (e.g. exhibit pieces, carpet, etc.).
Crawl Text moving horizontally across the bottom of a video screen.
Credentials Committee Committee formed to verify that individuals have the necessary qualifications to attend a meeting or become a member of an association.
Credit 1) An item entered on creditor side of an account (opposite of “debit”). 2) To add one sum to another.
Credit Card Badge A lead retrieval method using embossed plastic cards similar to credit cards.
Credit Risk Insurance Insurance designed to cover risks of nonpayment for delivered goods.
Credits Names of persons who either created or performed in a program.
Crème Brûlée Pudding of cornstarch, eggs, milk, sugar and whipped cream served in a ramekin.
Crêpe (crayp) Very thin pancake, used to roll up anything from meat to dessert.
Crescent-Round Set-Up Uses 60-, 66- or 72-inch (152-, 168- and 183-centimeter) diameter rounds with seating on two thirds to three quarters of the table and no seating with its back to the speaker. Used for banquet-to-meeting or meeting-tobanquet quick set. See Also Buzz Set-Up , Half Moon Set-Up
Crew Stagehands, technicians, truck loaders, etc.; responsible for the technical set-up of an event.
Croissant(kwa sant) Crescent shaped French bread that is very tender, due to a lot of butter.
Crop To use less than the full frame area of a photograph or less than the full area of art work.
Crop Mark Indication on original art or photo defining area that is to be reproduced.
Crosby A clamp connector used with cables.
Cross Aisle An aisle at a right angle, or perpendicular, to a main aisle.
Cross Bar Rod used in draping or as a support brace.
Cross Dissolve Gradual changing of one picture or sound or color to another.
Cross Face Smooth change from one color or image to another.
Cross Fade Change from one scene to another in which visual images are blended together and one image fades out as another fades in. See Also Dissolve
Crosstalk Undesired sound from radio devices infringing upon the sound system, typically heard as bleed-over between left and right stereo speakers, or as leakage of highfrequency sound between busses or circuits in audio mixers, microphone cable snakes and multiple circuit audio signal wiring.
Cru Raw, uncooked.
Crudités 1) Pieces of raw vegetables served as hor d’oeuvres, often with dip. 2) Raw vegetable salad, usually julienne cut.
Crumber An implement used to clean the crumbs from in front of the guest between dinner and dessert.
CSEP Certified Special Event Professional; an earned designation from the International Special Events Society (ISES).
CSM Convention Services Manager. Professional at a hotel, convention center or convention bureau who is responsible for event operations management on all levels.
CSP Certified Speaking Professional; an earned designation from the National Speakers Association (NSA).
CTC Certified Travel Counselor.
CTLO Constructive Total Loss Only.
CTP Certified Travel Professional.
CTSM Certified Trade Show Marketer.
Cube Area occupied by an exhibit within a trailer, determined by multiplying the exhibit’s length, times width, times height.
Cube Taps Three way plugs for combining electrical cords. (Note: cube taps are illegal by fire code in some facilities.)
Cubic Content The use of exhibit properties in the airspace over the entire leased area above a height of eight feet or more.
Cue Visual or aural signal to elicit response or action.
Cue Card Off-stage card that displays script to performers on stage in order to prompt lines. See Also Camera Card , Idiot Card
Cue Channel Portion of the audio signal-carrying channels in a system that is used to allow musicians to hear other performers or portion of the ensemble sound in order to match pitch or tempo.
Cueing 1) Assigning cue numbers to various elements of a production. 2) Setting audio tape or video film at a specific point.
Cultural Services A service concerned with organizing activities which are mainly related to the artistic and intellectual side of civilization.
Currant Small piquant berry used for jellies, or dried and used like raisins.
Current Assets Assets that can be converted quickly to cash. e.g. marketable securities, notes, inventories, account receivables.
Current Liabilities All debts incurred in the normal day-to-day business and due within one calendar year.
Curriculum Vita A document similar to a resume and is often referred to as a “vita.” It highlights a speaker’s education and key jobs held. A speaker in the academic community usually uses a curriculum vita.
Custom Exhibit An exhibit which is unique to the specific requirements of the user.
Custom Fabricated Exhibit An exhibit that is individually designed and built with a wide range of materials.
Custom House An individual or firm licensed to enter and clear goods through customs.
Custom Menu Menu specifically created for a client.
Customized Tour A TOUR designed to fit the specific needs of a particular target audience. See Also Tour
Customs 1) The governmental authorities designated to collect duties levied by a country on imports and exports. The term also applies to the procedures involved in such collection. 2) Practices common to many of a particular group.
Customs Broker An individual or company which provides customs clearing services to shippers of goods to and from another country. Licensing and requirements vary from country to country. In the United States, a customs broker must be licensed by the Treasury Department and pass a government examination covering a broad range of knowledge, including all phases of import regulations, rates of duties, and customs law.
Customs Cooperation Council, Nomenclature See Also Brussels Tariff Nomenclature
Cut 1) Instantaneous change from one scene to another without a fade-in or fade-out. 2) Signal to interrupt or cancel.
Cut & Lay Installation of carpet other than normal booth/stand or aisle size.
Cut Out Profile cut display item (e.g. letters, photos, etc.).
Cut Rate Cost per hundred weight.
Cutline Text identifying a photograph; caption.
Cut-Off Date Designated date when the facility will release a block of sleeping rooms to the general public. The date is typically three to four weeks before the event. See Also Reservation Review Date
Cut-Off Time Hour when a non-guaranteed reservation must be filled or it may be cancelled.
Cut-Off Time A specific point in time at which the exhibition contractor will cease (for the day) all unloading or loading activities. In transportation environment this refers to the specific time a shipment must be tendered to a carrier in order to receive service that day. For example, a flight that departs at 10:00 p.m. may have a cargo cut-off time of 7:00 p.m.
Cutting Sheet Drawings made by carpentry shops, detailing size and shape of raw material to be cut. See Also Template
CVA Convention & Visitors Authority. See Also Convention and Visitors Bureau
CVB Convention and Visitors Bureau. Convention and visitor bureaus are not-for-profit organizations charged with representing a specific destination and helping the longterm development of communities through a travel and tourism strategy. Convention and visitor bureaus are usually membership organizations bringing together businesses that rely on tourism and events for revenue. For visitors, CVBs are like a key to the city. As an unbiased resource, CVBs can serve as a broker or an official point of contact for convention and event planners, tour operators and visitors. They assist planners with event preparation and encourage business travelers and visitors alike to visit local historic, cultural and recreational sites.
CWT Abbreviation for “hundred weight.” This is the unit of measure used in drayage and freight shipments.
CYC See Also Cyclorama
Cycles The amount of “movement” in electrical current. International standard is 20% cycles; in U.S., 60 cycles.
Cyclorama 1) Platforms of varying heights used together to create a stage, such as the rows of steps a choral group would use during a performance. See DAIS. See Also RISER, PODIUM. 2) Stage background scene giving illusion or depth. Also called CYC. See Also Dais , Riser , Podium
D/B/A Doing Business As
DA Distribution Amplifier. Amplifier which increases the amplitude of a signal in a line in order to distribute it to multiple points of use.
Daily Newsletter Daily information sheet for participants during event. See Also Show Daily
Dais Raised platform usually above the floor of a hall or large room. See Also Podium , Riser
Damage Clause Part of a contract dealing with procedures, penalties, and rights of the party causing damages.
Damask Woven silk or linen fabric used for napery (napkins and tablecloths).
Dance Floor Area for dancing, can be carpeted when not used for dancing. Portable dance floors come in 3 foot x 3 foot sections.
Dark A day on which a facility or hall has no events or performances booked. Monday is the traditional dark day for theaters.
DAT Digital Audio Tape
Data Projection See Also Computer Data Projection
Data Projector A self-contained unit with a LCD panel, light source and lens that works with both PC and Mac computers and duplicates the image being shown on the monitor without any need for special software or complex setting up. See Also LCD
Database A collection of all information on all prospects (attendees and exhibitors).
Date Draft A draft document, such as a contract, which matures a specified number of days after the date it is issued, without regard to the date of acceptance.
Date Protection A guarantee that the dates an event organizer has selected for an event in a specific facility are reserved for that organizer.
Day Glo Trademarked name for iridescent paints or inks that glow.
Dead Areas Areas where sound is muted or absent.
Dead End Flight Last leg of a flight.
Dead Time Time during which an employee is unable to work due to factors beyond his or her control and for which he is paid.
Debate A discussion which takes place within a meeting, a public or private sitting or in one of the various types of assembly or meeting.
Debt Service Regular payments required to keep a loan current.
Declared Value Shipper’s stated value of entire shipment in terms of dollars.
Décor Props, lighting, and other elements used to create a theme or ambiance. Décor is used to enhance an event with elements including but not limited to carpet, pipe and drape, stage props, customized lighting, linens, tablescapes, skirting, ceiling treatments, stage sets, projection images, special effects or sound effects.
Decorating Dressing up an area with carpet, draping, plants, etc.
Decorator An individual or company providing installation & dismantle and booth/stand and hall dressing services for a trade show and/or its exhibitors. Decorator services may be provided by carpenters, sign painters or others depending upon union jurisdiction. Term applies to both contractor and skilled craftsperson. See Also I&D
Deferred Air Freight Long haul air freight that waits for available cargo space (usually 1 to 2 days) at a reduced rate.
Deferred Airfreight/Deferred Service Airfreight that can wait for available cargo space because of low delivery priority. Usually a three- to five-day service that moves at a reduced cost.
Deferred Rebate A deferred rebate is the return of a portion of the freight charges by a carrier to a shipper, in exchange for the shipper giving all or most of his shipments to the carrier over a specified period of time (usually 6 months). Payment of the rebate is deferred for a further similar period during which the shipper must continue to give all or most of his shipments to the rebating carrier. The shipper thus earns a further rebate which will not, however, be paid without an additional period of exclusive or almost exclusive patronage with the carrier. In this way, the shipper becomes tied to the rebating carrier.
Definite Booking Space reservations confirmed in writing.
Delegate 1) Person who attends an event primarily to visit exhibits or attend meetings and/or conference sessions. This excludes exhibitors, media, speakers, and companions. 2) Registered meeting participant. 3) Voting representative at a meeting.
Delegate Card Admission card confirming a booking and registration.
Demi Half.
Demi Tasse Small cup of coffee, used for espresso.
Demi-Pension A rate inclusive of breakfast and dinner, in addition to the room. In the U.S. and Canada it is called MODIFIED AMERICAN PLAN (MAP), which means breakfast and one other meal (usually dinner). See Also Modified American Plan , American Plan , Bermuda Plan , Continental Plan , European Plan
Demographics Characteristics that help create a profile of exhibitors and attendees. May include company location, job function, purchase budget, purchase intentions.
Demonstration 1) The act of showing how to do something. 2) A group of individuals organized to picket or protest against a group using placards, literature, songs, shouts and, sometimes, marches or sit-ins.
Demonstrator Person hired to work in a booth/stand demonstrating or explaining products.
Denied Boarding Compensation Refund of airfare or payment to passenger when airline fails to honor a confirmed reservation within two hours of scheduled departure.
Density Pounds per cubic foot, determined by mathematical formula where the weight of an article or shipment is divided by the cubic feet it occupies.
Departure Date Date when majority of event participants check out of a facility.
Departure Tax Fee collected from traveler by host country at time of departure.
Deposit An advanced partial payment to secure product or service.
Depreciation The gradual erosion of the usability and value (possibly due to obsolescence) of an organization’s fixed assets. In some cases depreciation can be declared as a tax deduction.
Design Artist’s concept or visualization of how a printed piece should look.
Desktop Publishing Using a personal computer to prepare materials for printing.
Desktop Videoconferencing DVD. Videoconferencing on a personal computer.
Destination A city, area or country which can be marketed to groups or individuals as a place to visit or hold an event.
Destination City A city which in and of itself is an attraction, e.g. Orlando or San Francisco.
Destination Control Statement Any of various statements which the U.S. Government requires to be displayed on export shipments and which specify the destinations for which the shipment has been authorized. Also Called ANTIDIVERSION CLAUSE.
Destination Management Company DMC A professional services company possessing extensive local knowledge, expertise and resources, specializing in the design and implementation of events, activities, tours, transportation and program logistics. Depending on the company and the staff specialists in the company, they offer, but are not limited to, the following: creative proposals for special events within the meeting; guest tours; VIP amenities and transportation; shuttle services; staffing within convention centers and hotels; teambuilding, golf outings and other activities; entertainment, including sound and lighting; décor and theme development; ancillary meetings and management professionals; and, advance meetings and onsite registration services and housing. See Also Professional Congress Organizer , Ground Operator
Destination Manager Local on-site coordinator.
Detail Drawing Drawing showing method of construction, plan views, elevations, floor ports, drains, etc.
Dialogue Discussion of ideas and opinions.
Die Cut Method of producing repetitive cutout shapes in quantity.
Diffuser An open grid or a solid translucent plastic to soften or conceal light sources.
Digital Subscriber Line DSL Provides high-speed access to the Internet via telephone lines. DSL service requires a DSL modem.
Digital Video Capture, manipulation and storage of video in digital format on a computer. Can be displayed on a computer as part of a graphic presentation.
Dimensional Weight Generally refers to air-freight and van line shipments. Invoices are calculated with two weights, actual and dimensional. The dimensional weight is based upon the volume of the shipment. The billing weight is the larger of the two.
Dimmer A device to control light intensity. See Also Rheostat
Dimmer Board A combination of switches, dimmer plates and fuses for controlling light. See Also Switchboard
Dine Around Use of a number of restaurants in a destination with reservations and billing arrangements to one particular client.
Dinner Evening meal for a group; not usually ceremonial.
Direct Billing Accounts receivable made available to individuals or firms with established credit.
Direct Flight Flight between two points on the same aircraft. There may be stops, but no plane changes.
Direct Lighting The aiming of a fixture directly at the object/area to be illuminated.
Direct Mail A marketing technique in which material is mailed directly to individuals in a target audience.
Direct Sales Method Selling direct to the end user with promotional efforts using advertising, direct mail or telephone sales.
Direct Spending All expenditures associated with an event that flow into the host destination’s local economy. Direct spending includes attendee spending, exhibitor spending and event organizer spending. See Also Economic Impact (Total) , Indirect Spending , Induced Spending
Directional Signs Signs directing attendees to an exhibit, event or special area.
Directory 1) The printed document passed out to event attendees that includes a list of conference sessions, exhibitor descriptions, a floor plan and other information. 2) An alphabetized list of members with contact information.
Disability A physical or mental impairment that limits normal life functions.
Discussion Form Paper containing an application to put a question during a conference session to a particular speaker on a specific subject; usually submitted in advance of the session.
Discussion Group 1) A group of participants in a separate debate within some types of meetings. Similar to a working group but with no expectation of reports or papers. 2) A threaded bulletin board where participants can post messages under the heading of a particular topic and responses are grouped by topic or thread. Groups are asynchronous, not occurring in real-time.
Discussion Leader Person who introduces topic of discussion and controls the discussion in the group. Moderator.
Dishonored Reservation If a hotel accepts a reservation but can’t provide a room, the hotel has breached the contract and the injured guest is owed damages. The usual term is for the guest to be compensated for the first night to stay at the second hotel and usually reimbursement for transportation between the hotel and the second hotel. See Also Hotel Reservation
Dismantle 1) Take-down and removal of exhibits. 2) To take apart.
Dismantling Deadline The time and day by which booths/stands have to be dismantled and removed from an exhibition area.
Dispatcher Person responsible for scheduling and routing freight, labor, shuttle busses, etc.
Display An arrangement of products or informational material.
Display Builder Company or person that fabricates displays.
Display Case See Also Showcase
Display Material The material exhibited by the various exhibitors. Such material is usually insured or has its value stated in writing for insurance purposes.
Display Place Exhibit booth/stand.
Display Rules & Regulations A set of specifications for exhibit construction endorsed by all major exhibit industry associations. Also refers to the individual additional rules which may be adopted by event management.
Dispute A conflict or difference of opinion between an employer and a union or between an employer and employees over some phase of their relationship. Usually refers to a serious controversy that threatens or causes a work stoppage or that is submitted to an arbitrator or government agency for settlement.
Dissolve See Also Cross Fade
Dissolve Unit Device that activates fade-out and fade-in of slides from one projector to another.
Distance Learning A type of education where students work on their own at home or from an office, and communicate with faculty and other students via email, electronic forums, chat, webconferencing and other forms of online communication. Includes correspondence courses, audio, video and internet delivery. Meeting and event Web sites can facilitate distance learning by offering online educational programs.
Distribution Channel The path a product follows to be delivered to the end user. This may be through distributors, retail outlets, self service outlets, vending machines, telephone sales, direct mail sales, etc.
Distributor An enterprise that purchases products for resale to their customers who are usually retail outlets. The distributor expects to receive a significant price discount for providing the distribution service.
Distributor Show An exhibition produced by a distributor at which exhibitors are the manufacturers of products sold by the distributor and attendees are the distributor’s customers. See Also Exhibition , Trade Show
Divider Movable barrier that partitions a large area into smaller areas. May be sound resistant, but not necessarily sound proof. See Also Air Wall , Movable Wall , Partition
DMC Destination Management Company. See Also Destination Management Company
DMC Consortium National and/or international alliances of destination management companies who form select communities for the purpose of sharing collective efforts for business sharing, education, ethics and destination management industry monitoring.
DMCP Destination Management Certified Professional. An accreditation offered by the Association of Destination Management Executives (ADME).
Docent Tour guide in a museum, educational facility or art gallery.
Dock A place where freight is loaded onto, and taken from, vessels or vehicles.
Dock Receipt A receipt issued by an ocean carrier to acknowledge receipt of a shipment at the carrier’s dock or warehouse facilities. When delivery of a foreign shipment is completed, the dock receipt is surrendered to the vessel operator or his agent and serves as the basis for the preparation of the OCEAN BILL OF LADING. See Also Ocean Bill of Lading , Warehouse Receipt
Dock Usage Instructions on the allotment of a loading dock’s space and time required for loading and unloading of trucks for an event. This information should be included in the specifications guide for an event.
Document Sharing A feature of many videoconference systems that allows participants at each conference site to view and edit the same document.
Dog Bone A 1’ five wire cord that is used to help transfer high voltage power to 120 volt power on the BCP.
Dog House An electrical outlet that will accommodate 6 plugs. See Also Sex Box
Dolly Any of several kinds of low, flat, wheeled frames for transporting heavy objects.
Dolma Stuffed grape leaves.
Domestic Beer/Wine Beer or wine produced in the country where it is served.
Donation Sum of money or item of value received as a gift or contribution.
Donkey Dick A metal pole placed on the front of a forklift for carrying rolls of carpet.
DOS Director of Sales.
DOT Department of Transportation. In the United States, on the national level, the Federal Department of Transportation is a government agency responsible for safety, interstate highways and interstate commerce matters.
Double A guestroom assigned to two people.
Double Bed Bed measuring 53-by-75 inches (135-by-191 centimeters).
Double Booking 1) Reserving space for two groups to use the same space at the same time and neither can be fully accommodated as contracted. 2) An organization reserving space in more than one venue for the same event. 3) Two or more reservations made for the same traveler for the same dates. Can be canceled by the airlines if discovered as they consider this a violation of their ticketing rules.
Double Cloth Use of two tablecloths on a banquet table for decorative purposes, to muffle sound, or to attach skirting to. Usually two different colors are used. See Also Overlay
Double Decker Two-storied exhibit. See Also Multi-Story Exhibit
Double Lock Two locks, one a dead bolt, on a door for extra security.
Double Room A sleeping room occupied by two persons. The room may have one or more beds of any type in it. The symbol used by APEX to denote it is:
Double Room Rate The price per person for a sleeping room to be shared with another person.
Double Width Two tables placed together, allowing extra room in a BOARDROOM SET-UP. See Also Boardroom Set-Up
Double-Double Room A sleeping room with two beds that is occupied by two persons. The symbol used by APEX to denote it is:
Double-Faced Panel A panel of wood or other material that is finished, or not rough, on both sides.
Double-Faced Tape Tape used to adhere carpet to floor, signs, or panels.
Doubletime Premium pay, which is double the base rate of hourly wage.
Doubling Playing, by musicians, of more than one instrument during an engagement.
Downgrade To move to a lesser accommodation or class of service.
Downlighting The use of lighting instruments to light down onto objects below.
Downline Space On a multi-leg itinerary, the flights following first flight.
Downlink The station which receives data transmissions from a communications satellite.
Download Transfer a file from a host computer to your computer.
Downstage Front of the stage, closest to the audience.
Draft Bill of Exchange. An unconditional order in writing from one person (the drawer) to another (the drawee), directing the drawee to pay a specified amount to a named payee at a fixed or determinable future date.
Drain Line Pipe that drains water. Usually used on the exhibit floor for displays that require water.
Dram Shop Laws In the United States, a legal term for laws covering the liability of people serving alcoholic beverages. Under dram shop laws, a party injured by an intoxicated person can sue establishments contributing to that person’s intoxication. Many dram shop laws also cover serving alcohol to a minor.
Draped Booth/Stand A booth/stand made up of back wall and sidewall of pipe and drape (typically provided by management).
Draper Person who installs drapes, pleats, and special decor.
Drapery Decoratively arranged tablecloths or skirting on the front of head tables and around reception and buffet tables.
Drapes Decorative material, usually hung on pipe frames to partition an area, adorn a room, or provide privacy.
Draping Decorating with drapes.
Drawback A refund of duties paid on imported goods that is provided at the time of their re-exportation.
Drayage Delivery of exhibit materials from the dock to an assigned exhibit space, removing empty crates, returning crates at the end of the event for recrating, and delivering materials back to dock for carrier loading.
Drayage Charge The cost of moving exhibit materials within the confines of the exhibit hall, based on weight. This charge is calculated in 100-pound units, or hundredweight, abbreviated cwt. (There is usually a minimum charge for all drayage.)
Drayage Contractor Company responsible for handling exhibit materials.
Drayage Form Form for exhibitor requesting handling of materials.
Drayer Official event handler designated to move exhibits from truck to dock to booth space. Usually handled by general service contractor.
Dress 1) Clothing worn by talent. 2) Dress rehearsal; final camera rehearsal. 3) Set dressing; necessary set properties. 4) To neatly arrange cables lying on the floor.
Dress Casual Collared shirts, sweaters, turtlenecks, blazers and slacks, such as khakis or corduroys for men; casual dresses or slacks, sweaters and blouses for women. No shorts, jeans, t-shirts, flip flops, etc. See Also Friday Casual
Dress Code Required or suggested acceptable manner or style of dress for an occasion or event.
Dressed Lumber Term referring to lumber that has been sanded or smoothed down to less than its rough dimensions.
Dressing 1) Sauce for salads; stuffing in poultry. 2) Decor, costumes.
Dressing the Exhibit Placing graphics, plants, literature and applying any finishing touches to the display.
Drive-In Instructions Directions informing a venue or facility of the number of event participants expected to travel by automobile an event, in order to ensure adequate parking and bell staffing. This information should be included in the specifications guide for an event.
Driver Another name for loudspeaker; the word “driver” is used by non-engineers to designate a compression driver like those used to drive horns for acoustic amplification and directional control of sound.
Drop Large, painted piece of material used for stage background.
Drop Slot Opening in countertop to receive cards.
Drop Time The time at which passengers have been dropped off and vehicle service ends.
Drop-Off Food Self-service hot and/or cold foods are prepared at one location and then delivered to the event site at a different location.
Dropout Momentary loss of recorded audio or video signal during playback, due to imperfections in the tape.
Dry Audio signal or sound without reverberation. An audio signal or sound with reverb is called “wet.” See Also Wet
Dry Lease Rental of a plane without crew, supplies, fuel, and maintenance service.
Dry Run Rehearsal or trial run-through of program.
Dry Snacks Finger foods, such as peanuts, pretzels, potato chips, and corn chips, usually served at receptions.
DSL Digital subscriber line. Brings high bandwidth via copper phone lines.
DSM District Sales Manager.
DT Labor Work performed on overtime and charged at twice the published rate.
du Jour Of the day, e.g. soup du jour or vegetable du jour.
Dual Podiums Placing two identical podiums at stage right and stage left, so that they can be used with multiple speakers or presenters. See Also Podium , Lectern
Dual Projection The projection of two images at a time using two separate projectors and two screens.
Dual Set-Up Arrangement of duplicate set-ups in two or more different locations.
Dualing Menus Split (dual) entrées, e.g. Surf & Turf.
Dub 1) To transfer recorded sound from one unit to another. 2) Copy of a recording or Tape.
Duchess Potatoes Potatoes mashed with eggs and squeezed through a pastry tube. Can be served as a side dish, or used to pipe decoration around a serving platter.
Duct Tape Tape used to adhere carpet edges to floor or to cover wires and cables on a carpet. See Also Carpet Tape , Gaffer’s Tape
Dummy Mock-up of printed pieces as they should appear in the final form, made up of the correct size and number of pages, showing the position of the various text elements and illustrations.
Dump See Also Boneyard
Duo Two performers or musicians.
Duoserve Property A hotel property in which logistics are handled by the convention services manager (CSM), with catering handled by a separate manager.
Duotone Photograph prepared for two-color reproduction.
Dupe Duplicate. Copy of film or tape which has been printed from the original copy.
Duplex Outlet Double electrical outlet.
Duty 1) Fee levied on imported and exported goods. Duties are generally based on the value of the goods (ad valorem duties), some other factors such as weight or quantity (specific duties), or a combination of value and other factors (compound duties). 2) Actions required by one’s occupation. See Also Ad Valorem Tax
Duty Roster List outlining hourly schedules and responsibilities of all event staff members.
Duty-Free Imports Item amounts and categories specified by a government that are free of tax or duty charges when brought into the country.
Duvetyne A woven fabric with a nap, similar to Commando Cloth, but lighter and with a finer nap. A substitute for velour, most often used for masking drapes. Often misspelled as duvatyne, duventyne, and duvetine.
DVC Desktop videoconferencing.
DVD Digital Video Disk – holds more data than a CD Disk.
Dye Transfer Technique of producing full color, accurate color prints.
Dynamic Range Difference, in decibels, between the loudest and the quietest passages in a musical or audio program. Also, the difference between the maximum signal level that can be produced under nominal operating distortion levels by an electronic circuit, and that circuit’s obnoxious noise level (called the “noise floor”).
E&O Insurance Errors and Omissions Insurance. See Also Errors and Omissions Insurance
E&OK Errors and Omissions Excepted.
EAC Exhibitor-Appointed Carrier. See Also Exhibitor-Appointed Carrier
EAC Exhibitor Appointed Contractor. Any company other than the designated “official” contractor providing a service to an exhibitor.
EAON Except As Otherwise Noted.
Early Arrival 1) To reach your destination before the appointed date or time. 2) When a hotel guest with a confirmed reservation requests to check in to his/her room prior to the scheduled date and/or check-in time. 3) Arrival prior to arrival of the majority of the group.
Early Registration Registration received before a pre-definite date, usually offering a lower fee.
Early-Out A guest who checks out of a housing facility (hotel, motel, etc.) one or more days earlier than his or her scheduled departure date. Also Called UNDER-STAY, UNEXPECTED DEPARTURE. See Also Overstay
Easel Three-or four-legged stand with a rack used to display cork board, magnetic board, posters, signs, charts, or other objects.
EBITDA Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization. A measure of an enterprise’s net income.
EC European Community.
ECB Event-Contracted Block. See Also Event-Contracted Block
Echo Any or all audibly discrete delayed sound images. In contrast, reverberation produces a wash of sound, with no discrete echoes.
Echo Buss Typically, a dedicated audio channel within an audio mixing console, through which a signal intended to be sent or received to or from an echo or reverberation device (e.g. an echo chamber) is routed.
Éclair (ee clare) Oblong puff pastry filled with custard or whipped cream and topped with chocolate.
e-Commerce 1) Electronic commerce. 2) Buying and selling products and services while online over the internet.
Economic Impact (Total) The total value of an event. Events generate secondary spending (indirect and induced) on the host destination’s local economy over and above the original direct spending. These secondary impacts, when combined with the original direct spending, result in the total economic impact of an event. See Also Direct Spending , Indirect Spending , Induced Spending
Economic Multiplier Total economic impact divided by direct spending. See Also Economic Impact (Total) , Direct Spending
ECU European Currency Unit. Currency unit of the European Community.
EDAC Exhibit Display Association of Canada.
EDC Exhibitor Designated Contractor. See Also EAC
Edge Light Technique of illuminating engraved lines in glass or plastic by transmitting light through edge of material.
Editing Correcting and/or improving final copy before typesetting.
EDPA Exhibit Designers and Producers Association. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Educational Conference Center Facility that is affiliated with a campus or university.
Educational Meeting An event held for the purpose of teaching information.
Educational Program Substantive instructional content at an event.
Educational Session Time period during which information or instruction is presented.
Educational Visit Tour of place or location by a group of individuals with a common interest in the subject matter visited ( i.e., work place or manufacturing plant). See Also Study Mission
EE Errors Excepted.
Effects Effects devices can be broadly classified as anything that changes the sound of signals passing through them.
Effects Projector Device combining theatrical projector with variable throw, and rotating decorated lens; used to project ripples, waves, clouds, etc.
Efficiency 1) Sleeping room at a housing facility with food preparation amenities. 2) The ratio of input and output usually expressed in a percent. For example, a loudspeaker, which produces 8 acoustic watts when fed 100 electrical watts, is 8% efficient.
EFX Special Effects.
Egg Foo Yung Chinese pancake which includes eggs, bean sprouts, subgum (mushrooms) and often either pork, shrimp or chicken.
Eggcrate Construction technique of joining two materials by notching both and inserting slots into each other.
Eggplant A member of the nightshade family, related to the potato and tomato, actually a berry. There are many varieties and colors from dark purple to white, and range from 2 to 12 inches and from oblong to round. The most common in the U.S. is the large, pear-shape variety with a smooth, glossy, dark purple skin. Japanese or Asian eggplants are very narrow and range in color from solid purple to striated shade. Italian or baby eggplant looks like a miniature version of the common large variety, is more delicate skin and flesh.
Eggs Benedict Poached eggs on an English muffin, with Canadian bacon (or ham) and hollandaise sauce. This item holds well in hot boxes.
e-Key Key used to prevent a guest from entering his/her room.
e-Learning The use of an electronically based network or Internet technology to design, deliver, select and extend learning. Included in this category are TV and satellite broadcasts, Internet delivered video-on-demand, audio-on demand, and any other computer-based form of learning and training.
Electric Eye A device that creates a light beam, the interruption of which will activate a relay switch for control of a desired animation.
Electric Pointer Laser device which a speaker uses to cast an illuminated spot on the wall, blackboard, screen, etc., to draw attention to a particular feature.
Electrical Contractor Person or company contracted by event management to provide electrical services to exhibitors.
Electrician A technician trained in the installation, operation and dismantling of all electrical equipment.
Electronic Blackboard System for sending handwriting, and hand-drawn graphics, over a telephone line. The sender may use either a light pen or a digitizing tablet, and the appropriate image will appear on a television monitor at the remote location.
Electronic Crossover See Also Active Crossover
Electronic Editing Process by which program elements are inserted and assembled on medium without physically altering the medium, e.g. video tape, CD Roms.
Electronic Payment Payment by means of electronic funds transfer, e.g. using a credit card at a point-of-sale terminal.
Electronic Pour System of dispensing exact amounts of liquor per drink.
Electronic Whiteboard A system of controlling multimedia presentations by displaying computer generated images onto a white board. The board copies all information written or taped onto it, and saves, publishes or prints out the notes.
Elevated Table Table raised to counter height. See Also Cocktail Table , Tuxedo Table
Elevation 1) Height. 2) Front and side views of a scaled drawing.
Ellipsoidal Spotlight Type of adjustable spotlight formerly known as a klieg light. It is used to light lecterns, signs and areas that need a tightly focused pool of light. See Also Leko , Lectern
Email Alert See Also Conference Reminder
Email Newsletter A newsletter distributed to a subscriber list via email. Often referred to as “opt-in” or permission marketing because subscribers choose to receive the information.
Embedding Technique of capturing object in Lucite or other materials.
Embedment Casting in plastic. Can be done with photos and translites, or transparencies.
Embossing Impressing letters or artwork in relief. Blind embossing is an inkless impression on blank paper.
Emcee The master of ceremonies at a banquet or similar event. Sometimes spelled MC.
Emergency Action Plan Procedures about how to react and respond to an emergency situation, such as medical emergencies, fire and bomb threats.
Emergency Exit Door, clear of obstructions, designed for egress in the event of fire or panic.
Emergency Medical Plan A formalized plan of action for handling on-site emergencies from basic first aid to fire or serious injury.
Emotional Factors Emotions brought to class by adult learners that may help or hinder their learning.
Employer’s Association Organization of employers who band together mainly to deal with labor unions as a unified group.
Empty Sticker The tag indicating a crate may be moved into storage. The sticker identifies the exhibitor and the return location for the crate.
en Brochette Broiled and served on a skewer. See Also a la Broche , Shish Kebob
en Casserole Food served in the same dish in which it was baked.
en Coquille Cooked and served in shell or shell-shaped ramekin.
en Croûte Baked in a flaky crust (e.g. Beef Wellington).
Encryption The translation of data into code. One of the most effective ways to achieve data security.
End Cap An exhibit space with aisles on three sides. See Also Peninsula
Endorsement 1) To give approval or agreement to a certain subject matter or event. 2) To inscribe, as a signature or notation, on a document. 3) A provision added to an insurance policy that alters or explains its coverage. 4) The authority to reissue a ticket for travel on airlines other than the issuing carrier (the carrier on which the ticket was originally written).
Energy Break Refreshment break where nutritious foods and beverages are served, occasionally including some form of exercise. See Also Break
Engagement Used as a noun to describe a set booking or date when a buyer has secured the services of, or employed, a speaker.
Engineering Department in a facility (hotel, convention center, etc.) responsible for operating and maintaining a building’s services systems, such as climate control, electrical, and water.
English Breakfast A large, hearty breakfast that can include juice, hot cereal, eggs, meat (often fish), pastries with jellies and preserves, and hot beverages.
English Service Food is brought to the table on a tray, presented to the host, who either cuts the food him/herself or chooses to have it done by the server away from the table. Vegetables are placed in bowls on the table for guests to serve themselves. See Also Family-Style Service
Entertainment Activity performed for the amusement and enjoyment of others.
Entertainment Program Program of events organized for the entertainment of participants.
Entrecôte Sirloin steak.
Entrée Main meal course. (In Europe, it is the term used to describe the appetizer.) With the increase in international business, it is recommended that the word entree no longer be used, in favor of main course.
Environmental Those conditions in an event facility surrounding and Considerations affecting projection and audio quality (i.e., doors, ceiling height, etc.).
EOR Exhibitor of Record.
Épice Highly spiced.
EPO Each pays own. See Also Pay Own
Equalization The intentional alteration of levels of portions of the audio frequency spectrum to fit the requirements of frequency response defined by a listener. Traditionally, the term equalization was used to describe the replacement (always a boost) of energy lost as a result of long telephone line runs of wire, but today the term is used to describe any change in frequency response or spectral balance done intentionally by using any device, which includes circuits that can produce these changes.
Equalizer Device used to compensate for undesired sound system characteristics or room acoustics.
Equipment Manager A person assigned to issue and maintain accountability of equipment such as radios, uniforms, flashlights, signage, umbrellas, traffic cones, and stanchions.
Erase 1) Permanently remove information from a magnetic medium such as a videotape. 2) Delete from a computer storage device. Erection The set up and teardown of exhibits. See Also I&D
Errors and Omissions Insurance Errors and Omissions Insurance – Often referred to as E&O insurance. A form of insurance that indemnifies the insured for any loss sustained because of an error or oversight on his part.
ESCA Exhibition Services & Contractors Association. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Escargots Snails cooked in broth.
Escoffier Dish Serving containers for chafing dishes.
Escort A person, usually employed or subcontracted (or independently contracted) by a DMC, who accompanies a tour from departure to return, as a guide. 2) A person who performs such functions only at the destination. See Also DMC
Escorted Tour 1) A prearranged travel program, usually for a group escorted. In a fully conducted tour, escort and/or guide service is provided throughout. 2) A sightseeing program conducted by a guide (e.g. a city tour). See Also Tour , Escort
ESG Event Specifications Guide is the industry’s official term for the document used by an event organizer to convey information clearly and accurately to appropriate venue(s) and/or suppliers regarding all requirements for an event. See Also Event Specifications Guide
Espresso A very thick, strong coffee, served in a demi tasse cup.
Est. Wt. Estimated Weight.
Estimate 1) Critiquing and rating the overall success of an event. 2) Developing an event profile from accurate event statistics. 3) Approximate calculation of exhibit costs.
ETA Estimated time of arrival.
Etching Inscribing lines of textures on the surface of rigid materials using acids or tools.
ETD Estimated time of departure.
Ethernet Internet Service Local area network of computers and associated devices that share a global information system.
Étouffée Succulent, tangy, tomato-based sauce, usually used with crawfish or shrimp.
European Community EC. The block of Western European countries formerly knows as the European Economic Community (EEC).
European Currency Unit ECU Currency unit of the European Community, called the “Euro.”
European Plan EP A room rate that does not include meals. See Also American Plan , Bermuda Plan , Continental Plan , Demi-Pension , Modified American Plan
Evaluation 1) Critiquing and rating the overall success of an event. 2) Developing an event profile from accurate event statistics.
Evaluation Learning Method Tests whether attendees learned what was expected, and if they can use the information effectively.
Event An organized occasion such as a meeting, convention, exhibition, special event, gala dinner, etc. An event is often composed of several different yet related FUNCTIONS.
Event Organizer Person whose job it is to oversee and arrange every aspect of an event. Person can be an employee or hired ad hoc to plan, organize, implement, and control meetings, conventions, and other events.
Event Site Premises where an event will be held. See Also Site
Event Specifications Guide Event Specifications Guide is the industry’s official term for the document used by an event organizer to convey information clearly and accurately to appropriate venue(s) and/or suppliers regarding all requirements for an event. See Also ESG
Event-Contracted Block ECB The rooms that are contracted for by an event organizer with a hotel(s) or housing facility(s) for a particular event.
Ex From. When used in pricing terms such as “Ex Factory” or “Ex Dock,” it signifies that the price quoted applies only at the point of origin (in the two examples, at the seller’s factory or a dock at the import point). In practice, this kind of price quote indicates that the seller agrees to place the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the specified place within a fixed period of time.
Excess Baggage Baggage which exceeds the free allowance set by the airline.
Exchange Rate The relative value of two different currencies at a specific time.
Exciter Lamp Lamp which projects illumination through optical sound track on 16mm film. Light patterns are read by the projector sound head converted to electronic signals fed to an audio amplifier.
Exclusion A contractual provision that denies coverage for certain perils, persons, property, or locations.
Exclusive Any agreement which limits who may provide specific products or services under certain conditions to only one party. A general service contractor, for instance, may have an “exclusive” in a particular facility, meaning that no other contractor is allowed to provide the same services or products in that facility.
Exclusive Contract Contract between a facility and a service provider designating that provider as the only provider of a specific service or products in that facility.
Exclusive Contractor Contractor appointed by event or building management as the sole agent to provide specific services or products.
Exclusive Right to Sell When a speakers bureau/agency has a contract with a speaker and is the sole and exclusive representative of the speaker.
Exclusive Use Rental of entire truck or van by one shipper.
Excursion A tour. A recreational trip or activity provided to event participants and/or accompanying persons as a scheduled portion of the event program. See Also Tour
Executive Coach A luxury motorcoach with seating of 25 or less which can include such amenities as TV, galley, wet bar, card tables, etc.
Executive Committee A committee of the Board of Directors that acts between meetings of the board to determine organizational policy.
Executive Conference Center A first class conference facility that caters to executive level events.
Executive Director Person appointed or hired to handle or direct day-to-day organizational functions.
Exhibit Individual display area constructed to showcase products, services or convey a message.
Exhibit Booth/Stand Individual display area constructed to showcase products or convey a message.
Exhibit Designer/Producer Person or company responsible for designing and constructing an exhibit booth/stand.
Exhibit Directory Program or catalog for attendees listing exhibitors and exhibit booth/stand location. See Also Directory
Exhibit Hall Area within facility where exhibition is located.
Exhibit House Company that fabricates displays. See Also Shop , Display Builder
Exhibit Manager 1) Person in charge of individual exhibit booth/stand. 2) Event management staff member in charge of entire exhibit area.
Exhibit Producer An individual or company that designs and/or builds exhibits. May also provide other services. See Also Display Builder
Exhibition 1) An event at which products and services are displayed. The primary activity of attendees is visiting exhibits on the show floor. These events focus primarily on business-tobusiness (B2B) relationships. 2) Display of products or promotional material for the purposes of public relations, sales and/or marketing. See Also Trade Show , Consumer Show , Gate Show , Public Show
Exhibition Area Amount of floor space occupied by exhibitor. See Also Booth/Stand Area
Exhibition Center Venue at which exhibitions are held.
Exhibition Contractor The organizer or promoter of an exhibition; responsible for the letting of space, financial control and management of the exhibition; sometimes an agent acting in this capacity.
Exhibition Manager Preferred term for the specific person responsible for all aspects of planning, promoting, and producing an exhibition. Also Called SHOW MANAGER, SHOW ORGANIZER. See Also Show Management
Exhibition Occupancy Total square feet of space used for exhibits times the number of use days divided by the total exhibit space in the building multiplied by 365. Expressed as a percentage.
Exhibition Plan Plan showing space to be occupied by the exhibition; the areas intended for booths/stands and those for passageways and services etc. See Also Floor Plan
Exhibition Service Contractor Supplier of booth/stand equipment, rental furnishings, floor coverings, labor, drayage and signs for exhibitions and trade shows. See Also General Service Contractor
Exhibitor 1) Person or firm that displays its products or services at an event. 2) Event attendee whose primary purpose for attending the event is to staff a booth/stand.
Exhibitor Advisory Committee Representatives of an event’s exhibiting companies who act as advisers to show management on rules and procedures, and also update show management on industry trends and issues.
Exhibitor Appointed Contractor EAC Any company other than the designated “official” contractor providing a service to an exhibitor. Can refer to an Install & Dismantle Company (I&D House), photographer, florist or any other type of contractor. See Also I&D
Exhibitor Kit See Also Exhibitor Manual
Exhibitor Lounge An area either on or adjacent to the exhibit floor where exhibitors may relax or meet with customers.
Exhibitor Manual Manual or kit, usually developed by the service contractor for an event, containing general event information, labor/service order forms, rules and regulations and other information pertinent to an exhibitor’s participation in an exhibition.
Exhibitor Move-In The time period allowed for exhibitors to prepare their exhibit space for show opening. It generally begins after the exposition contractor to receive/unload show-site deliveries.
Exhibitor Newsletter A newsletter sent by event management to exhibitors prior to a event. It includes updates on deadlines, event rules and regulations, events, and marketing opportunities offered by event management, plus educational articles to improve exhibitors’ effectiveness.
Exhibitor Prospectus Direct mail promotional materials sent to current and prospective exhibitors to encourage participation and promote the benefits of exhibiting in a specific show. Contains information about technical points, cost of exhibition space, floor plan of the exhibition and application for participation.
Exhibitor Retention Persuading current exhibitors to participate in subsequent events. Exhibitor retention rate is the percentage of exhibitors that renew.
Exhibitor-Appointed Carrier EAC For freight shipped to (inbound) or from (out-bound) a show, exhibitors are free to choose the carrier of their choice. This choice is predicated upon the exhibitor making necessary pick-up/delivery arrangements. When doing so, the exhibitor is said to have designated an EAC. Selecting a particular carrier is commonly associated with receiving preferred service and/or rates.
Exhibitorship Skills to effectively present an exhibiting company’s message. Includes body language, opening line and message presentation. See Also Boothmanship
Exhibits-Only The right to attend the exhibit-based portion of an event, not the paid conference or other fee events.
Exit Visa An endorsement made on a passport denoting that a person may leave the country.
Expanded Metal Sheets of metal cut and expanded to form an open mesh, usually used as decorative grill.
Expected Attendance Total number of people anticipated to attend an event prior to the event taking place.
Expedited Service Service offered by a transportation company to assure prompt delivery.
Expenses All contracted out-of-pocket business costs. These normally include airfare, taxi-fare, car rental costs, lodging, gratuities, special phone calls having to do with the event, meals, and last-minute presentational materials. Expenses charged to the client should not include anything of personal nature (i.e. movies, alcohol).
Explainer Personnel hired at an exhibition who have technical knowledge of a product; they may or may not be bilingual.
Export To send or transport goods out of one country for sale or display in another country. The exporter is usually the seller or the seller’s agent. See Also Import
Export Broker An individual or firm that brings together buyers and sellers for a fee, but does not take part in actual sales transactions.
Export Declaration Required for shipments valued at more than $220%0; used by the U.S. government to monitor the dollar volume of export shipments.
Export License A government document which permits the “licensee” to engage in the export of designated goods to certain destinations.
Export Management Company A private firm that serves as the export department for several manufacturers, soliciting and transacting export business on behalf of its clients in return for compensation. i.e. a commission, salary, or retainer plus commission..
Exposition See Also Exhibition
Exposition Manager See Also Exhibition Manager
Expository Learning The instructor presents to the learners and the learners remain passive and watch or listen.
Extended Type Type that is wider than standard, allowing fewer characters per line.
Extra Overnight Stays All extra nights spent by the participant other than overnight event stays.
Extra Section Added aircraft or bus to accommodate a group too large for one aircraft or bus.
Extraordinary Session A special session for activities, needs, or situations that are different from those normally and originally scheduled.
Extruded To form metal or plastic, push out.
Eye Bolts Eye bolts or eye screws have a looped head or an opening in the head.
F&B Food and Beverage.
F&B Guarantee See Also Guarantee
F&B Service Time Specific time at which a food and beverage function, or segment of a function (e.g., appetizer, entrée, dessert), should be served.
FAA Federal Aviation Administration.
Fabrication Construction of an exhibit or display.
Facilitator An individual who guides discussion and/or decision making.
Facility A structure that is built, installed or established to serve a particular purpose. See Also Convention Center, Hall
Facility Manager The manager of a convention center, exhibition hall or other venue.
Fade Progressive lessening or dimming of an image from the screen. See Also Dissolve
Fade-In Gradual fade from a dark screen to a visual image. See Also Cross Fade, Dissolve
Fade-Out Room lights are turned off or video screen becomes black. See Also Go to Black
Fader Device used to control all dimming circuits.
Fahrenheit A temperature scale in which 32° is freezing and 212° is the steam point. To convert Fahrenheit temperatures to Celsius, subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit reading, multiply by 5 and divide by 9. (A simple way to calculate is to subtract 10% of Fahrenheit, then double the result, which may be off a degree, but is generally close enough.)
Fair 1) Enterprise principally devoted to the exhibition of products of agriculture or industry. Typically, fairs also provide entertainment activities such as rides, games and food concessions. 2) Exhibition of products or services in a specific area of activity held with the objective of promoting business.
Fair trade Small farmers are paid a fair market price that enables them to improve their standard of living.
Fajitas Marinated meat prepared Mexican-style.
False Bow Staged bow and exit by the artist, with a planned return pending audience response.
Fam Trip Familiarization Trip. Offered to potential buyers of a venue, a program designed to acquaint participants with specific destinations or services and to stimulate the booking of an event. Often offered in groups, but sometimes on an individual basis. See Also Site Inspection
Family Name Preferred term for use on event housing and registration forms to indicate the name by which all immediate family members are known. See Also Given Name
Family Plan A discount price offered by companies to second and successive members of families.
Family-Style Service Platters and bowls of foods are set on the dining tables, from which guests serve themselves. Usually involves guests passing the containers to each other. See Also English Service
FAP Full American Plan. See Also American Plan
Farci Stuffed, e.g. stuffed meat.
Fascia Placard or sign at top of exhibit usually with company name.
Fashion Goods Goods where style is important and price is secondary. These products could include clothing, jewelry, furniture, draperies, and dishes, but can sometimes be stretched into other areas such as umbrellas, walking canes, cigarette holders, etc.
Fashion Show Choreographed display of garments and/or accessories by models.
Fast Fold Screen Brand name for a large screen with a frame which folds down into a small case for storage. The legs of this screen are attached at the sides of the screen, or the screen may be flown from above.
Featherbedding 1) Unfair labor practice of causing an employer to pay for services which are not performed, or requiring more people than necessary to do a job, or requiring the performance of superfluous work. 2) Making oneself comfortable through the receipt of excessive or unjustified compensation for little or no work. See Also Make Work Practices
Featherrock Material cut from volcanic lava in rough and varying sizes, or synthetic materials that looks exactly like heavy rock but is lightweight; useful for decorative stone, venues and dioramas.
Fee 1) A fixed amount or percentage charged. 2) The cost of participating in a meeting or event, paid to the organization conducting the meeting.
Fee for Service The amount charged for providing a service.
Feedback 1) Regeneration of sound from audio speakers back through a microphone causing a squealing sound. 2) Response about an activity, policy, or idea.
Feeder Space Reservations for passenger from home city to gateway city for international or Hawaii flights.
Fête A party or celebration.
Fettuccine Alfredo Fettuccine noodles in a white cheese sauce.
FHC Notation on floor plans indicating the location of fire hose cabinets.
Fiber Optic Cable A cable that is made up of tiny glass strands that are wrapped and bundled together to make up a cable. Fiber can transmit voice, data and video at gigabyte speed, or 1 billion bytes per second, with less signal loss than copper wire because the signal is carried by light rather than electricity. See Also Backbone
Fiber Optics 1) In displays, the use of cut glass fibers to display colored light. 2) In telephony, material used for carrying voice and data signals.
Fiberglass A material fabricated from plastic resins and glass fiber. Available in rigid forms, translucent and opaque. Can also be custom fabricated in intricate shapes.
Field Services Handling installation and dismantling, including freight, drayage, carpentry, electrical, plumbing, iron workers, riggers and maintenance.
File Server A computer that shares its resources, such as printers and files, with other computers on a network.
Filet Mignon Cut of the beef tenderloin.
Fill Light Light used to fill in shadows created by key light.
Fillet ‘Almost’ boneless cut of fish.
Film A flexible strip of chemically treated material used in taking still or moving pictures.
Film Chain Projectors and video equipment transmitting projected materials through a television system.
Film Clip Brief filmed piece.
Filmstrip Series of slides reproduced on one continuous strip of film.
Filter 1) A transparent material that is over a light that can affect the intensity, color, and focus of the light. 2) Circuit that selectively attenuates portions of the audio frequency spectrum. A filter is the opposite of the traditional equalizer, which selectively boosts, but for the purpose of modern convenient control of sound on mixes and equalizer units, the circuits of tone-altering controls usually incorporate the dual abilities to equalize and filter by simply rotating a knob one way or another.
Final Program Document containing the definitive conference and social program, circulated immediately prior to a conference or distributed at the commencement of the event.
Final Report Conclusive summary of conference events.
Financial Procedures An outline of accounting and banking techniques.
Financial Report Document incorporating the statement of income and expenses and the budget at a given date.
Financial Responsibility Law A law that requires a person or organization to furnish evidence of ability to respond to claims for harm from a specified type of activity. The most common financial responsibility requirement applies to motor vehicle operators, who must have evidence of ability to pay for automobile-related injuries or damage. An auto liability policy is the main form of financial responsibility.
Finger Bowl Hot water, sometimes scented, and fresh linen served to a guest after the meal so that the hands and face can be cleansed.
Finger Food Food at a reception that does not require a knife, fork or spoon.
Finger Pull Hinged finger grip usually mounted in recess on hinged doors.
Finished Wooden articles that have passed the state of manufacture “in the white” (refers to wood that has been primed).
Fire Aisle Interior aisle in an exhibition floor plan used for emergency egress that must be kept clear of obstructions.
Fire Exit Door or passageway, clear of obstructions, designed by local authorities for egress from a building or structure.
Fire Extinguisher Any agent used to extinguish fires such as water, sand, CO2, Halon, etc.
Fire Insurance This insurance usually covers loss or damage attributable to fire, smoke, explosion, or forces of nature. It can also cover water damage.
Fire Lane An external vehicle lane that must be kept clear of obstruction to allow emergency egress.
Fire Marshal In the United States, Fire Marshals’ responsibilities vary from state to state, but they tend to be responsible for fire safety code adoption and enforcement, fire and arson investigation, fire incident data reporting and analysis, public education and advising Governors and State Legislatures on fire protection.
Fire Retardant Term used to describe a finish (usually liquid) which coats materials with a fire resistant cover. This does not render the material fire-proof.
Firm Offer A speaking engagement that is definitely confirmed as in, “I’ve got a firm offer for Baltimore on that date.” A firm offer is one that becomes contractually binding upon acceptance of the offer by the third party.
First Aid Emergency care or treatment given to an ill or injured person before regular medical care is available. Also the place where such emergency care is provided.
First Announcement Initial notification of an event, generally outlining the basic framework of a meeting; a widely circulated document. Also Called PRELIMINARY ANNOUNCEMENT.
First Name Name given to identify individual family members. See Also Given Name
First Option See Also Option
Fishpole Holder with microphone often used in Q. & A. sessions. See Also Gooseneck Light
FIT Foreign Independent Travel. A custom-designed, prepaid travel package with many individualized arrangements. FIT are unescorted and usually have no formal itinerary.
Fixed Assets Usually non-liquid assets that are integral to the enterprise’s day-to-day business operations (e.g. plants, equipment, furniture and real estate).
Fixed Costs The day-to-day cost of doing business that is precommitted, such as salaries, insurance, lease expenses, utilities, etc.
Fixed Expense Expense incurred regardless of the number of event attendees.
Fixed Jig Permanent felt support mounted within a shipping container.
Fixed Seating Assignments Chairs of event rooms permanently affixed to the floor.
Fixed Theater Permanent, non-movable seats in an event room or amphitheater.
Flag Carrier Carrier designated by a country to serve international routes.
Flambé (flom bay) Meat dish or dessert item flamed with spirits.
Flame Resistant/ Retardant Material that is fire resistant.
Flange That part of an extruded, formed or fabricated component that protrudes from the basic shape. Often used as mounting plate.
Flare Dark flashes caused by light reflections from polished objects.
Flash Technique of blinking on and off to add emphasis.
Flash Box Smoke-producing device for special effects.
Flasher Device to activate one or more lamps by intermittently interrupting current.
Flat Cable Cable and extension cords that are used to lie on the floor under the carpet. It is flat to help reduce tripping hazards and provide a safer walk area within a booth/stand space.
Flat Framed 1′ x 2′, 1′ x 3′ or 1′ x 4′ mounted on flat surface, usually associated with banners or signs.
Flat Rate Flat rate for which a hotel or motel agrees to offer any of its available sleeping rooms (with the exception of suites) to a group. Final assignment of rooms is at the discretion of the hotel. See RUN-OF-THE-HOUSE RATE.
Flatware Utensils used in a place setting (e.g. knife, fork, spoon).
Flipchart Large pad of paper placed on, or attached to, an easel. Flipcharts are often used by speakers and facilitators for illustrative purposes. They are commonly used with permanent or non-permanent dry ink markers.
Float A large 4-wheel dolly with upright handle, can be manual or motorized.
Floater Worker(s) with no fixed assignment who are used to help out where needed.
Flocking An electrostatic spraying process producing a velvety finish on any surface.
Flood Light A light designed to provide general illumination.
Floor Load Maximum amount of weight per square foot/meter a floor can support. (May also refer to the maximum amount of power available from floor outlets and ports.)
Floor Manager Person retained by event management to supervise the installation, dismantling and operation of the exhibit area.
Floor Marking Method of marking booth/stand spaces in an empty exhibit hall to indicate where booth/stands will be set.
Floor Order Order for exhibitor services placed on-site after exhibit set up begins. Usually more expensive than an ADVANCE ORDER.
Floor Plan 1) Schematic drawing of an exhibit hall including dimensions, design, shape, entrances, aisles, numbered exhibit booth/stands, lounges, concession areas, restrooms, electrical/plumbing accessibility, etc. 2) Scale plan of the floor area of a hotel’s event space. 3) Schematic drawing of a function room with specific requirements (dais, tables, chairs, etc.) drawn to scale.
Floor Port Utility box, recessed in the floor, containing electrical, telephone, and/or plumbing connections.
Floor Speaker Member of a meeting audience who participates in discussion during a meeting session.
Floor-Length Linen Covers table across top and down to floor. Used for more formal events.
Flop To reverse a photo or illustration so that it conforms to the basic design.
Florentine Served with spinach.
Flush Type is set so that it is even with right margin, left margin and/or both margins.
Flush Mounted Mounting of one material to another with no space between them.
Fly Objects and scenery hanging from above.
Flyer One-piece printed announcement or advertisement.
Fly-In Instructions Directions informing a venue or facility of the number of event participants expected to travel by plane to an event, in order to ensure adequate parking and bell staffing. This information should be included in the specifications guide for an event.
Flying Raising and supporting sound, lighting or other equipment or décor from the ceiling.
Foam Core

Corrugated lightweight material with a Styrofoam® center sandwiched in the center; used for signs, decorating, and exhibit construction.


FOB Freight On Board. When something is purchased and paid for with terms ‘FOB origin’ it means the responsibility of the seller stops when the ‘goods’ are delivered to the transporting company at the point of origin. It is the responsibility of the buyer to pay for transportation.
Focal Length 1) Distance from the center of the lens to the film plane. 2) Size of lens required to obtain a specific size picture.
Focus Proper sharpness of the outline of an image.
Focus Group

Method of doing research using a small group led by a facilitator.


Foie (foy) Liver.
Foie Gras

Seasoned goose liver pâté.



See Also Cue Channel



1) Form on which all charge transactions incurred by a registered guest are recorded. 2) A leaf or sheet of paper in a bound book.

Follow Spotlight

Manually movable spotlight (a brilliant light projected onto a particular area).



Alphabet of type in a specific style. See Also Typeface


Food & Beverage

Any catered or concession service provided by a facility.


Force Majeure

An event (e.g. war, labor strike, extreme weather, or other disruptive circumstances) or effect that cannot be reasonably anticipated or controlled: a “fortuitous event.” See Also Act of God


Force Majeure Clause A clause in an agreement that excuses performance in the event that a FORCE MAJEURE makes the performance impracticable or impossible.
Forced Freight/Forcing the Floor Removal of freight from the event floor after the event close that was not picked up by an exhibitor’s carrier, or shipments left behind at the booth/stand at the close of the event without a bill of lading. Forced freight is generally removed from the hall at a specified time and held by the general contractor or official common carrier or until payment is made for forwarding.
Forecast 1) To estimate a hotel’s revenues and occupancy situation on any given date or dates. Used for planning of staffing, purchasing and budgeting. Does not reflect contract commitments. 2) To estimate revenues and expenses for a future event.
Foreign Exchange Currency Risk Risk that an organization takes when dealing with foreign currency due to exchange rates fluctuating over time.
Foreign Independent Tour FIT Custom-designed prepaid tour for an individual traveler. See Also Tour
Foreign Sales Agent An individual or firm that serves as the foreign representative of a domestic supplier and seeks sales abroad for the supplier.
Foreign Trade Zone An area within a country where imported goods can be stored or processed without being subject to import duty. See Also Free Port , Bonded Warehouse
Foreign/National Membership or meeting participation available to organizations or individuals from one nation, but able to meet in another nation.
Foreman Supervisor of a group of workers whose duties will vary based upon the region of the country and the union affiliation. See Also Job Foreman , Working Foreman
Fork Food Food at a reception that requires only a fork and not a knife.
Forklift/Forktruck Vehicle with a power-operated pronged platform for lifting and carrying loads, used to transport heavy exhibit materials short distances, and for loading and unloading materials.
Formal Dress See Also Black Tie , White Tie
Formica A brand name for a plastic laminate.
For-Profit An organization that organizes events with the intention of making a profit.
For-Profit Event Management Company A management company whose owners or stockholders share in its net proceeds.
Forum 1) Open discussion with audience, panel, and moderator. 2) A meeting or part of a meeting set aside for an open discussion by recognized participants on subjects of public interest. Also for legal purposes, as part of the proceedings of a tribunal, court or similar body.
Forward Contract An agreement guaranteeing a specific price for a product or service at a given future date. May also guarantee a specific rate of exchange when foreign currency is used.
Foul Bill of Lading A receipt for goods issued by a carrier with an indication that the goods were damaged when received. See Also Clean Bill of Lading
Four Hour Call Minimum work period for which union labor must be paid in special circumstances (generally, a minimum call is one hour.). Not to be confused with minimum charges to exhibitors applied by contractors that service events.
Four-Color Separation Process of printing a full color image utilizing four colored screened patterns from which printing plates can be engraved.
Foyer Pre-function space; public area in a venue for assembly or registration.
FP See Also Front Projection
Fraises (frays) Strawberries.
Framboises (fram bwah) Raspberries.
Frame Individual picture in a filmstrip or motion picture.
Framed Hardboard Masonite or similar material on a 1 x 2 or 1 x 3 frame.
Fraternal Groups where membership is based on common personal interests rather than common job or career responsibilities.
Free Form Self-supporting and independent exhibit material. See Also Island Exhibit
Free Paper Written transcript given as a result of acceptance of the submitted abstract on a subject chosen by the author.
Free Papers Session Reports on particular topics which, while closely related to the subject of an event, do not strictly refer to the matters under discussion.
Free Port See Also Foreign Trade Zone
Free Pour Alcoholic beverages poured by hand without the use of shot glasses or other measuring devices.
Free Rider Union term for a non-union worker who received the benefits of the union’s collective bargaining activity without sharing in the costs.
Free Standing Self-supporting and independent display material.
Free Trade Zone An area designated by the government of a country for duty-free entry of any non-prohibited goods. Merchandise may be stored, displayed, used for manufacturing, etc., within the zone and re-exported without duties being paid. Duties are imposed on the merchandise (or items manufactured from the merchandise) only when the goods pass from the zone into an area of the country subject to the customs authority.
Freeze Frame Motion picture or video frame that is stopped so a single frame is displayed. See Also Stop Motion
Freight Properties, products, and other materials that are shipped.
Freight Contractor The event-designated company responsible for handling exhibit properties from the dock to the exhibit space.
Freight Desk A shipping company that typically handles international freight shipments. At an event, handles inbound and outbound exhibit materials.
Freight Elevator Usage Instructions on the allotment of a facility’s freight elevator’s space and time required for an event. This information should be included in the specifications guide for an event.
Freight Forwarder An independent business which handles export shipments for compensation. At the request of the shipper, the forwarder makes the actual arrangements and provides the necessary services for expediting the shipment to its overseas destination. The forwarder takes care of all documentation needed to move the shipment from origin to destination, making up and assembling the necessary documentation for submission to the bank in the exporter’s name. The forwarder arranges for cargo insurance, makes the necessary overseas communications, and advises the shipper on overseas requirements of marking and labeling. The forwarder operates on a fee basis paid by the exporter and often receives an additional percentage of the freight charge from the common carrier. In the United States, an export freight forwarder must be licensed by the Federal Maritime Commission to handle ocean freight and by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) to handle air freight. An ocean freight forwarder dispatches shipments from the United States via common carriers, books or arranges space for the shipments, and handles the shipping documentation. See Also International Freight Forwarder
Freight Handling Form Form for exhibitor requesting handling of materials. Not to be confused with long haul shipping forms or bills of lading.
French Hours Not taking meal breaks. Taking breaks and eating as you work, as conditions permit.
French Service – Banquet Style Platters of food are composed in the kitchen. Each food item is then served from the guest’s left by the server from platters to individual plates. Any course can be ‘Frenched’ by having the dressing put on the salad or having sauce added to a entrée or dessert after it has been placed in front of the guest. See Also French Service – Cart Style
French Service – Cart Style This pattern of service involves the use of serving pieces (usually silver); heating and garnishing of food table-side by a captain; and the serving of food on a heated plate, which is then served to the guest by a server. Plated entrees are usually served from the right, bread and butter and salad from the left and beverages from the right. All are removed from the right. See Also French Service – Banquet Style
Frequency Spacing in time of events. In audio signals, frequency refers to the cyclic repeat of vibrations. In wire, the vibrations are electrical variations. In air, the vibrations are changes in air pressure. The ear hears air pressure variations with frequencies between about 12 times per second and 20,000 times per second of 12 Hz (hertz) and 20 kHz (kilohertz).
Frequency Rates The amount of time between motorcoaches on a given route or at a specific location.
Frequency Response Measurement of how a device being measured responds to test signals of constant amplitude without regard to frequency, over a particular measurement range of frequencies. An electrical device whose specifications say it is “flat from 20Hz to 20kHz,” will not cause any amplitude deviation in signals fed through it over that frequency range, as a result of changing the frequency of the test signal.
Fresnel Lens Lens which produces a soft edged beam of light. Theatrical fixture with adjustable lens 120% W through 120%0 W.
Friday Casual See Also Dress Casual
Frisket Technique of applying lettering or art to surface of rigid material by tracing outline on translucent paper; affixing the paper to surface or materials, cutting away paper within lettering spaces and then spraying color over surface. When balance of paper is removed, the lettering remains.
Frites (freets) French slang for French fried potatoes.
Froid Cold, chilled.
Fromage Cheese.
Front Desk 1) Hotel registration area. 2) The center of event facility activities, including registration and cashier services.
Front Office The office situated in the hotel lobby, the main functions of which are: 1) control and sale of sleeping rooms; 2) providing key, mail and information service for guests; 3) keeping guest accounts, rendering bills and receiving payments; and 4) providing information to other departments.
Front Projection FP Projection of an image onto the front surface of a light reflecting screen from a projector placed within or behind the audience.
Frontages/Front Space Refers to dimension across the front of an exhibit (for example, a 30′ x 10′ exhibit has 30′ of front space and 10′ depth).
FSA Fire Safety Act. In the United States, the aim of the Hotel and Motel Fire Safety Act of 1990 is to save lives and protect property by promoting fire and life safety in hotels, motels and other places of public accommodation. The law mandates that federal employees on travel must stay in public accommodations that adhere to the life safety requirements in the legislation guidelines. It also states that federally funded meetings and conferences cannot be held in properties that do not comply with the law. This is applicable to all places of public accommodation, and requires that such properties are equipped with: hardwired, single-station smoke detectors in each guestroom in accordance with the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standard 72; and, an automatic sprinkler system, with a sprinkler head in each guest room in compliance with NFPA standards 13 or 13R. Properties three stories or lower in height are exempt from the sprinkler requirement.
FTP File Transfer Protocol. The process of uploading websites or other data.
Full American Plan FAP. See Also American Plan
Full Disclosure Informing the party purchasing a product or service of any rebates, surcharges or commissions included in the price of the product or service before they are purchased.
Full House Closed; filled to capacity.
Full-Booth Coverage Carpet covering entire area of booth/stand.
Full-Service Restaurant A food service establishment that includes coffee shops, dinner houses, fine dining establishments, and theme restaurants with several menu selections and table service.
Fume (foo may) Smoked.
Fumigation To apply smoke, vapor, or gas to something for the purpose of disinfecting or of destroying pests. Fumigation is required in some countries for live plants and wooden packing.
Function 1) Any of a group of related organized occasions that contribute to a larger event. 2) An activity or role assigned to an event planner (or other industry professional).
Function Board Announcements on facility board or video screen listing the day’s events, times and locations. See Also Directory , Reader Board
Function Book Diary or log used to control and document the assignment of function space within a facility. May be computerized.
Function Sheet See Also Banquet Event Order
Function Space Area in a facility which can be reserved by a individual or entity to hold events.
Fundamental Any pure tone. The pitch remaining when all harmonics (overtones) are removed from a basic frequency or musical tone, producing a pure tone. An amplifier or audio circuit that can pass a pure tone without adding any harmonics of its own is said to have low harmonic distortion. Musical instruments usually produce tones rich in harmonics, giving each its particular sound or ”timbre.” Small loudspeakers will be heard to reproduce bass instruments even while producing little or no fundamental pitch because the ear and brain reconstruct the sound of the instrument based on prior knowledge of its timbre.
Funnel Flight Flight, with one flight number, requiring a change of planes at an intermediate stop.
Furniture Dolly See Also Float
Fuse Head An electrical igniter used to initiate a pyrotechnic effect. Sometimes called a Squib Head.
Future Bookings Events or meetings which are contractually committed to occur at a future date in a specific venue.
G&A General & Administrative. Expenses incurred by an organization that cannot be charged directly to a specific project account, i.e., overhead costs such as rent, etc.
Gaffer Electrician on a film or video shoot.
Gaffer’s Tape Fabric tape used in anchoring cables to the floor. See Also Duct Tape , Carpet Tape
Gain Level of audio volume. See Also Level
Gala Dinner Primary social function of an event, usually in the evening, including entertainment or speeches after a formal meal.
Galantine Boned meat, pressed into symmetrical shape, that usually includes truffles. When the loaf is sliced, a decorative pattern is revealed. Served cold, generally as an appetizer.
Galley Proof Sheet of copy that has been typeset for the author to correct before printing.
Gang Box See Also Trouble Box
Ganging Menus When two or more groups in facility have the same menu.
Gangway Space between sets of tables, chairs or booths/stands to allow passage of attendees. See Also Aisle
Garcy Strip Trade name of manufacturer that produces brackets and standards for the mounting or materials, usually shelves.
Garlic Pungent bulbs made of sections called cloves encased in a parchment like membrane. Garlic is a cousin to leeks, chives, onions and shallots.
Garment Rack Frame which holds apparel. See Also Costumer
Garni See Also Garnish
Garni Hote l Hotel without dining facilities.
Garnish Food decoration, usually edible, which adds color and form to food presentation. Also Called GARNI.
Gate Show Exhibition open to the public usually requiring an entrance fee. See Also Exhibition , Consumer Show , Public Show , Trade Show
Gateau (gah toe) Cake.
Gateway A dedicated computer that attaches to two or more disparate networks and converts data packets from one form to another.
Gateway City City with an international airport.
Gator Foam Laminated foam board used for signage, available in a variety of thicknesses. More rigid and durable than FOAM CORE.
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. A multilateral treaty whose purpose is to help reduce trade barriers between the signatory countries and to promote trade through tariff concessions.
Gel 1) Theatrical color filter used in conjunction with theatrical projection fixtures and spotlights. 2) Gelatin.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade A multilateral treaty whose purpose is to help reduce trade barriers between the signatory countries and to promote trade through tariff concessions.
General Assembly General and formal meeting of an association, club, organization or company attended by a specified proportion at least of its members for the purpose of deciding legislative direction, policy matters, the election of internal committees and approval of balance sheets, budgets and the like. An assembly generally observes certain fixed rules of procedure.
General Export License Any of various licenses covering export commodities for which validated export licenses are not required. No formal application or written authorization is needed to ship exports under a general export license.
General Liability Insurance An insurance policy that provides protection against claims involving bodily injury and property damage to third parties.
General Service Contractor GSC An organization that provides event management and exhibitors with a wide range of services, sometimes including, but not limited to, Installation & Dismantle, creating and hanging signage and banners, laying carpet, drayage, and providing booth/stand furniture. See Also Decorator
General Session A meeting open to all those in attendance at a event. See Also Plenary Session
General Strike A simultaneous strike by the unionized workers in all trades and industries in a geographic area. Also, a strike by all the unionized workers in one industry.
Genie Lift The manufacturer of a variety of lifts used in the erection of event displays. The first model manufactured was a hand-cranked material handling lift. Also Called HURTY GURTY. Genie now also manufactures motorized lifts that can be used as material lifts or man lifts.
Geographic Segmentation The arbitrary division of a market by country, region, state, zone, district, standard metropolitan statistical area (SMSA), city, etc.
Gerber Machine for cutting vinyl lettering used in making signs.
Get-Together A planned informal gathering that occurs during an event which offers an opportunity for social interchange.
Ghee Clarified butter.
GIF A common format for bitmapped image files, suitable for images containing large areas of the same color.
Gig A slang term meaning an engagement or booking.
GIT See Also Group Inclusive Tour
Given Name Preferred form for international registration documents in place of first name. Same as FIRST NAME. See Also Family Name
Glaçe 1) Ice. 2) Ice cream. 3) Iced.
Glass Beaded Screen Screen whose surface is covered with tiny glass beads which reflect a bright image back toward the audience, but have a narrow viewing angle.
Global Partner A worldwide associate who joins in an activity or business with another or others.
Glossy 1) A black-and-white or color photograph printed on glossy paper, used to promote a speaker or celebrity. 2) Common term for photographs reproduced on high gloss paper.
GMT Greenwich Mean Time. Time on the line of longitude that passes through Greenwich, England, used as a basis for calculating time throughout the world. See Also Zulu Time
Gnocchi Pasta made from potatoes; potato dumplings served in a red tomato based sauce.
Go to Black Room lights are turned off or video screen becomes black. See Also Fade-Out
Goblet Glass with stem and foot.
Gobo A pre-cut, etched pattern fabricated from metal or glass that fits in the focal plane of a lighting instrument to form projected light into a shape (logo, graphic or even scenery). Templates can form light images on ceilings and walls. The pattern or template can be used in a projection type spotlight, to project decorative patterns on the walls. The “Bat” image from “Batman” is an example.
Good Faith Effort A true and honest effort to uphold the law.
Good One Side Plywood whose face side is free of blemishes.
Goods and Services Tax Fee imposed on the sale of goods and services.
Gooseneck Light Small (75 to 120% watt) spot light with flexible stem.
Goulash Hungarian meat dish seasoned with paprika.
Government Meeting An event at which attendees are civil servants, elected officials or service providers to governmental entities.
Governmental Conference Technical or political events between governments with the aim of discussing national or international topics.
Grandstands Tiered or stepped seating facilities wherein an area of more than 3 square feet is provided per person.
Granitee A coarse-textured sorbet.
Grant Money obtained from organizations or authorities to underwrite or support a specific program or project.
Graphics Communicative elements such as color, copy, art, photographs, translites, etc. used to illustrate a booth/stand theme or enhance decor.
Gras (grah) Fat.
Gratuity A voluntary payment added to a bill (e.g. a restaurant check), to signify good service. See Also Service Charge
Gray Water Non-drinkable water, not potable.
Grazing Nibbling on food.
Green Room Room, stocked with refreshments, for artists, featured speakers and entourage to meet guests and media representatives. See Also Holding Room , Ready Room
Greenwich Mean Time GMT Time on the line of longitude that passes through Greenwich, England used as a basis for calculating time throughout the world. See Also Zulu Time
Greeter A person who meets or receives another person/persons in a specified way.
Grid System Technique of providing system of structural supports, electrical conduit, etc., on a pattern of centers. Also used for ceilings.
Grievance 1) An employee’s or employer’s dissatisfaction or cause of distress (as an unsatisfactory working condition or unfair labor practice) felt to afford a reason for complaint or dispute. 2) A violation of a collective bargaining agreement usually by the employer.
Grille Grilled or broiled.
Grip Stagehand who assists master carpenter.
Grits Ground hominy (corn).
Grommet Rubber, metal or plastic element for reinforcing holes in weaker materials.
Gross For speakers, the total fee a buyer is charged for a booking, including agents’ fees, but excluding speaker expenses (air and ground transportation, tips, hotels, and meals). Bureau commissions are not paid on expenses.
Gross Square Feet/Meters gsf or gsm 1) Total amount of available function space in exhibit hall or other facility. 2) Total amount of space used for a specific show or event. See Also Net Square Feet/Meters
Gross Weight The full weight of a shipment, including goods and packaging. See Also Tare Weight , Actual Weight
Ground Loop Electrical circuit where two or more paths to ground (true 0 volts) have different voltages as a result of current flow through wiring or chassis elements. The minute voltages on some ground legs may find their way into equipment input circuits and be amplified, causing hum, buzzing or in the worst case, inaudible high frequency oscillations, sometime at high power levels, that can ultimately cause destruction of tweeter voice coils or even burn out amplifiers.
Ground Operator Company or person in a city handling local transportation and other local travel needs. See Also Destination Management Company
Ground Support Lifts, trusses, pipe or other freestanding devices used to raise sound, lighting or other equipment above the heads of attendees and to support it from the floor.
Ground Transfer The movement of passengers, in a vehicle, on a tract of land, from one point to another.
Groundrow Freestanding low scenery or painted cutout giving illusion of depth used to mask mechanical or electrical devices.
Group Arrivals/Departures Information included in the specifications guide for an event that outlines approximate dates and times at which groups of event attendees can be expected to arrive at a facility (hotel) for check-in or check-out. This is intended to give the facility notice in order to prepare for front desk staffing.
Group Booking Reservation for a block of sleeping rooms specifically for a group.
Group Inclusive Tour GIT Travel program with a special fare and specific requirements (e.g. a minimum number of persons traveling as a group throughout the TOUR). See Also Tour
Group Rate Confirmed rate extended to attendees booking their sleeping room accommodations as part of a group room block.
Group Tour A prearranged, prepaid travel program for a group usually including transportation and attraction admissions. May or may not include meals. See Tour. See Also Tour
Group Travel Participants depart on the same conveyance and follow the same schedule of activities.
Group Travel Agency Company specializing in planning and handling group travel.
Gruyère Cheese (grew yayre) A Swiss cheese used to make fondue.
GSF See Also Gross Square Feet/Meters
GST Goods and services taxes.
Guarantee A promise of commitment to provide a minimum amount of sleeping rooms, F&B, or other revenues. Usually there is financial liability if the commitment is not met. The final number of persons to be served is usually required at least 48 hours in advance of a food & beverage event.
Guaranteed Late Arrival Sleeping room that is guaranteed by credit card or advance payment in the event a guest’s arrival is later than a hotel’s pre-determined arrival time.
Guaranteed Payment A hotel reservation secured by the guests’ agreement to pay for his room whether he uses it or not.
Guaranteed Reservation Pre-paid reservation held until agreed arrival time, or check-out time the next day, whichever occurs first. Guest is responsible for payment if reservation is not cancelled.
Guaranteed Tour A TOUR guaranteed to operate unless cancelled before an established cut-off date. See Also Tour
Guest 1) A person who pays for the services of an establishment such as a hotel. 2) A person who accompanies an attendee to an event. This person can be a spouse, significant other, child, etc.
Guest Program Educational and/or social events planned for spouses and guests of event participants.
Guest Speech Paper or speech on a specific subject submitted at the request of an event’s organizers. See Also Invited Paper
Guide Person accompanying a tour and giving detailed knowledge of places of interest.
Guided Tour A sightseeing trip conducted by a guide.
Gumbo A Creole specialty, it’s a thick, stewlike dish that can have any of many ingredients, including vegetables such as okra, tomatoes and onions, and one or several meats or shellfish such as chicken, sausage, ham, shrimp, crab or oysters.
Gusset In construction, a triangular reinforcement or brace in corners of panels or framing.
Halal Food prepared according to Islamic Law. Halal food is defined as food that: does not consist of or contain anything which is considered to be unlawful; has not been prepared, processed, transported or stored using any appliance or facility that was not free from anything unlawful; and, has not in the course of preparation, processing, transportation or storage been in direct contact with any food that fails to satisfy the first two conditions. In addition, Halal food can be prepared, processed or stored in different sections or lines within the same premises where non-Halal foods are produced, provided that necessary measures are taken to prevent any contact between Halal and non Halal foods. Halal foods can also be prepared, processed, transported or stored using facilities that have been previously used for non Halal foods provided that proper cleaning procedures have been observed.
Half Moon Set-Up A seating arrangement in which 60-, 66- or 72-inch (152-, 168- and 183-centimeter) diameter rounds have seats on two-thirds to three-quarters of the table and no seats with their backs to the speaker. Used for banquet-to-meeting or meeting-to-banquet quick set. See Also Crescent-Round Set-Up
Half Moon Table Half of a round table, or two quarter-round tables attached to make a half circle. See Also Half-Round
Half-Round A semi-circular table.
Halftone Photograph that has been prepared for single color reproduction.
Hall A place of public assembly or used for exhibits; usually refers to a large function space.
Halon Fire Extinguisher A fire extinguisher generally used on computers and electronic fires. It should not hurt the computer or destroy silicon chips. It is classed as a hypo-thermal chemical fire extinguisher.
Hand Carry Items that an exhibitor is allowed to carry unaided into a event facility without being charged.
Hand Service One server is assigned for each two guests. Servers wear white gloves. When serving, they stand behind their guests holding two composed plates. When the signal is given, all guests are served at the same time.
Hand Truck Small hand-propelled implement with two wheels and two handles used for transporting small loads. See Also Wheeler/Wheelie
Handling Moving of materials, usually to and from a loading dock.
Handout Informative or educational material given to the audience at the speaker’s presentation. Handouts often are in flyer form. The term, however, refers to any material that is handed out to the audience.
Hands-On Participation Demonstration of a product of service in which people actively participate with the product or service.
Hard Card 1) Work order for labor or services. 2) Material handling contractor’s record of materials received or shipped.
Hard Data See Also Quantitative Data
Hard Wire Electrical connections that are other than receptacle to receptacle. These are charged on a time plus materials basis.
Hardwall A type of exhibit construction in which the walls are of solid material, rather than fabric.
Hardwall Booth/Stand Booth/stand constructed with plastic, plywood or similar material as opposed to booth/stand formed by drapery only.
Haricots Verts (harry co vare) Very small green (string) beans.
Harmonic Distortion Distortion which is harmonically related to the fundamental signal fed through an audio circuit or system. Harmonic distortion is characterized by a harsh sound that ranges from a slight edge on some of the highfrequency components of a musical program, to the fuzz associated with electric guitar effects pedals.
Harmonized Code Commodity number assigned to goods shipped internationally. Also referred to as a Schedule B number.
Harmonized System of Tariff Nomenclature An international system for classifying goods in international trade and for specifying the tariffs on those goods. It was adopted at the beginning of 1989, replacing the previously used schedules in over 20% countries, including the Brussels Tariff Nomenclature. See Also Brussels Tariff Nomenclature
Haute Cuisine Food that is prepared in an elegant or elaborate manner; the very finest food, prepared perfectly. The French word haute translates as “high” or “superior.”
Hazard A condition that increases the likelihood that a loss will be more severe.
HCEA Healthcare Convention and Exhibitors Association. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Head 1) Front or first, e.g. HEAD TABLE. 2) Pan-tilt device on which a camera is mounted.
Head Count Actual number of people attending a catered function. See Also Audience Count , Cover
Head Table Table used to seat VIPs, speakers, and other dignitaries, often elevated on a dais or stage. See Also Dais , VIP
Head Tax Fee charged arriving and departing passengers in some foreign countries.
Header 1) FASCIA. 2) Overhead illuminated display sign. 3) A sign or other structure across top of exhibit. Usually displays company name.
Headquarters Facility, as the center of operations, where registration, general sessions, and conference staff office are located.
Headroom Reserve voltage or power level in an audio deice or system. The difference in levels between the normal or “nominal” operating levels and the peak clean (undistorted) available levels. See Also Nominal Operating Level
Heads in Beds Term that refers to sleeping rooms in a hotel actually occupied by guests.
Headset Headphone with a built-in microphone.
Health Warning Decree issued by the World Health Organization warning travelers of the outbreak of a communicable disease in a given area.
Heel and Toe To staple forming folds with sateen or other decorative material. A method of pleating.
Herringbone Set-Up Seating arrangement in which chairs are arranged in rows slanted in a V shape and separated by a center aisle. They face the head table or speaker. See Also Chevron Set-Up , V-Shape Set-Up
Hertz (Hz) Unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second.
HI LOW See Also Forklift/Forktruck
Hidden Charge Unbudgeted or undisclosed expense or charge.
Hide-A-Bed A sofa that opens to make a bed. Also Called SOFA BED.
High Drape High drape is any drape over 8’ high which requires special equipment. High drape is used to create dramatic areas such as stages or special focal points. Typically, high drape is dark blue velour and is 16’ to 19’ high, although vinyl or 11’ banjo drape in blue and other colors is often used. All high drape needs to be anchored securely on its framework to ensure it cannot fall.
High Jacker Equipment capable of lifting a person or persons to a given height. See Also Cherry Picker, Man Lift, JLG, Scissor Lift, Genie Lift, HI LOW, Forklift/Forktruck
High Season Period when the demand for a supplier’s product or service is highest. Prices general increase in high season. Also Called PEAK SEASON. See Also Low Season
Highball Glass Traditional tall glass for an alcoholic mixed drink.
High-Key Lighting Lighting in which picture intensity produces limited dark areas.
High-Level Crossover See Also Passive Crossover
High-Tech Visuals Visual presentations involving sophisticated and frequently complicated equipment such as lasers, multiimage, and mixed media equipment.
Hire International term referring to “rent” a service or product.
Hiring Cost The price paid by the organizer to the owner of the event facility.
Hiss Unwanted random noise associated with audio tape, unmodulated record grooves and noisy amplifiers and other audio circuitry. In circuitry, hiss is caused by the thermal activity of the molecules in the materials of which that electronic component parts are made.
History Record of an event over time.
Hoison Sauce Chinese sauce used on Peking Duck.
Hold Harmless A type of indemnity clause that requires one party to fully protect the other from a claim asserted. This would include the payment of costs or attorney fees.
Holding Room A room backstage where speakers wait to go on. See Also Ready Room
Hollandaise Sauce Sauce of egg yolks, clarified butter, lemon juice and spices. Served on vegetables (e.g. Asparagus with Hollandaise Sauce) or on Eggs Benedict.
Hollow Circle Set-Up Seating arrangement of tables and/or chairs all facing each other in a single circle.
Hollow Square Set-Up Seating arrangement of tables set in a square (or rectangle) with chairs placed around the outside of the table. Center (inside) table is hollow.
Hologram A photographic effect using lasers to obtain a three dimensional image on a flat surface.
Homard (oh mard) Lobster. A true lobster has two front claws. Most ‘lobster tails’ come from Rock Lobster or Spiny Lobster, which are actually a large variety of crawfish.
Honorarium Voluntary payment made for services where no fee is legally required.
Honorary Non-paid, generally referring to an appointment within a committee or group and in recognition of expertise or services rendered.
Horizontal Show An exhibition at which the products or services being displayed represent all segments of an industry or profession. See Also Exhibition, Vertical Show
Hors d’Oeuvres Small appetizers; Hot and/or cold finger foods served at a reception.
Horseshoe Set-Up Tables set up in rounded U shape with chairs placed outside. Chairs inside if needed. See Also U-Shape Set-Up
Hospitality Program Plan for receiving and entertaining guests in a friendly and generous manner.
Hospitality Suite/Event 1) Room or suite of rooms used to entertain guests. 2) An event in the United States usually separate from the exhibit, in which refreshments are served and exhibitor personnel and visitors socialize.
Host On a network, any computer that is a repository for services available to other computers on the network.
Host An association, corporate body, town, country or other such party that invites an event to take place within or under its jurisdiction or its financial responsibility.
Host Bar Private room bar set up where guests do not pay for drinks. See Also Open Bar , Sponsored Bar
Host Country Country that invites an event to take place within or under its jurisdiction.
Hot Camera Camera that is turned on.
Hot Spot Undesirable concentration of light on one area of slide or film.
Hot Tag VIP Luggage tagged for special handling.
Hotel Accommodation Sleeping Room(s) at a hotel and rooming arrangements; usually specifying the hotel classification in terms of its amenities, facilities, level of service and cost.
Hotel Classifications There is no official classification or accepted rating system for U.S. hotels, but the following definitions are generally understood: BUDGET – Budget hotels and motels are reasonably priced accommodations and are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. lodging industry. In general they provide a room with a bed, TV, telephone and shower as well as free parking. They often do not have room service or a restaurant. DELUXE – a top-grade hotel, all rooms have a private bath; all the usual public rooms and services are provided a high standard of decor and services is maintained. FIRST CLASS and LUXURY – Many luxury hotels in the U.S. exist in large cities, offering a number of special services to the business and leisure traveler. A U.S. first class hotel offers, for example, first rate restaurants, banquet and conference rooms, valet service, room service, cable TV and complimentary morning newspapers. MODERATE – These hotels account for nearly 75% of available U.S. hotel rooms. They have on-site restaurants, bar and perhaps conference rooms, as well as the basic services. TOURIST ECONOMY or SECOND CLASS – Budget operations; most have private baths; services may be very limited.
Hotel Reservation A contract between the hotel to provide a guest room on certain dates and rate and the guest who agrees to use the hotel on the specified dates at the agreed upon rate (and any other terms). If the guest breaches the reservation contract by being a no-show or failing to cancel on time, the hotel is owed damages. The usual term is the payment of one-night’s room rate (they shouldn’t charge you if they sell out. They also shouldn’t charge tax unless required by state or local law). See Also Dishonored Reservation
Hotel Show An exhibition held in a hotel. See Also Exhibition
Hotel/Motel Tax See Also Transient Occupancy Tax
House A synonym for hotel commonly used within the industry. Examples are: full house, house count, house income, house bank and house charge.
House Account Term for internal accounting by the facility to cover incidental expenses not chargeable to the event or another hotel account.
House Board Switch panel from which all electrical fixtures are operated.
House Brand Brand of wine or distilled spirits selected by a hotel or restaurant as their standard when no specific brand is specified.
House Count Number of guests or sleeping rooms actually occupied on a particular night.
House Lights Lighting of room separate from stage lighting.
House Manager Person in charge of the auditorium side of a facility and not the stage production.
House Plan Diagram depicting the function space in a facility or the entire facility.
House Wine Brand of wine selected by a hotel or restaurant as their standard when no specific brand is specified.
Housekeeping Facility department charged with maintaining and cleaning a venue.
Housekeeping Announcements Announcements about schedule changes, locations of functions, and similar program information.
Housekeeping Instructions Special directions to a facility’s housekeeping department from an event organizer that apply to that event and its attendees. Can include information such as the best time frame for refreshing sleeping rooms.
Houseman Service-staff member who handles function-room set up and tear down. See Also Banquet Set-Up
Housing Shelter or lodging.
Housing Bureau Organization that provides reservation services for a group and its attendees.
Housing Form Form used by event attendees to make reservations at an event-contracted hotel or housing facility.
Housing Priority Points A system used by some event organizers to assign guest rooms in housing facilities or floor space in an exhibition where preferred locations are given to those exhibitors or sub-blocks with higher priority points. Points are also often awarded for consecutive years of attendance/exhibiting, early registration for an event, sponsorship levels, etc. Points are often earned (primarily by exhibitors or exhibiting companies) by booking guest room reservations within the Event Contracted Block (ECB). See Also Event-Contracted Block , Sub-Block
Housing Report Document detailing housing utilization (reservations, pickup, etc.).
HSMAI Hospitality Sales & Marketing Association International. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Hub & Spoke Tour A TOUR that utilizes a central destination with side trips of varying length to nearby destinations. See Also Tour
Hub Airport An airport used as a central point for passengers to make flight connections and for carriers to have maintenance facilities.
Hudson’s Stages of Developmental Learning Stages of learning that one encounters throughout a lifetime; the priorities present in each stage affect the way a person learns.
Hue Color or shade.
Human Arrow A person who holds signage, greets guests, presents an enthusiastic demeanor, gives directions and keeps people moving in the right direction.
Humanist A learner who seeks education in order to change his/her value structure and achieve personal goals.
Hurty Gurty See Also Genie Lift
Hush Puppies Small, round, fried cornbread with onions and spices, usually served with fish.
HVAC Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. See Also A/C
Hypertext Text that links to another file and can be selected (clicked on) to go to another document, image or FTP (download) site.
Hz Hertz. Unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second.
I&D Installation & Dismantle. 1) The set-up and teardown of exhibits. 2) Firm that does I&D work. See ERECTION. See Also Erection
IAAM International Association of Assembly Managers. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
IAAMC International Association of Association Management Companies.
IAAPA International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions.
IACC International Association of Conference Centers. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
IACET International Association for Continuing Education and Training.
IACVB International Association of Convention and Visitor Bureaus. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
IAEM International Association for Exhibition Management. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
IAHMP International Association of Hispanic Meeting Planners.
IAMAT International Association for Medical Assistance for Travelers.
IASB International Association of Speakers Bureaus. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
IATA 1) (Pronounced ‘eye’-AH-ta’.) International Air Transport Association. IATA # Identification (or membership) number of travel agents who receive commission.
IATSE International Association of Theatrical Stage Employees.
Ice Carving Decorative carving from large block(s) of ice used to enhance a buffet or reception table.
Ice Wine A dessert wine made by picking grapes that are frozen on the vine and pressing them before they thaw. Because the water in the grapes is frozen, the juice is concentrated, rich in flavor and high in sugar and acid. Ice wines are renowned in Germany, where they’re called Eiswein (pronounced ICE-vine).
ICPA Insurance Conference Planners Association. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
ICW In Conjunction With. An event or function that occurs because of another event.
ID Sign Exhibit booth/stand identification sign.
Idiot Card Cue card which displays script to performers on stage in order to prompt lines. See Also Camera Card , Cue Card
IEA International Exhibitors Association.
IFSEA International Food Service Executives Association.
IHO In honor of.
Illuminations Lighting available in hall, built into exhibit, or available on a rental basis.
Illusion Mirror Generally translucent mirror, which reflects when confronted with light source and is transparent when rear illuminated.
I-Mag See Also Image Magnification
Image Magnification Technology by which presenter’s image is projected onto a large screen, allowing large audiences to see details from the stage. Also called I-Mag.
Immigration The process by which a government official verifies a person’s passport, visa or birth certificate.
Impaired Vision Seating View of stage, from audience seating, which is blocked. See Also Obstructed View
Impedance Total amount of opposition to the flow of alternating currents in an electrical circuit which may comprise resistance, capacitance, inductance or reactance.
Import To bring international goods into a country. In international sales, the importer is usually the buyer or an intermediary who accepts and transmits goods to the buyer. Compare With EXPORT. See Also Export
Import License A document required and issued by some national governments authorizing the importation of goods into their individual countries.
In Conjunction With ICW An event or function that occurs because of another event.
In Sync Sound and picture are synchronized or matched perfectly.
Inauguration Ceremony A ceremony which marks the official beginning of a public event or at which officers of an organization officially assume their responsibilities. Often includes an address by a dignitary and possibly some form of dedication or token event such as cutting a ribbon, passing a gavel, laying a cornerstone or planting a tree.
Inbound Tour A group of travelers whose trip originated in another city or country. See Also Outbound Tour, Inbound Tour Operator
Inbound Tour Operator A tour operator or travel agent who specializes in services for incoming visitors. Same As RECEPTIVE OPERATOR. See Also Inbound Tour
Inbound Transfer To move or travel toward a destination.
Incentive Reward offered to stimulate greater effort.
Incentive Event A reward event intended to showcase persons who meet or exceed sales or production goals.
Incentive Travel A travel reward given by companies to employees to stimulate productivity.
Incentive Travel Company Company which designs and handles some or all elements of incentive travel programs.
Incident Report A document prepared to record information including time, date, location, parties involved, witnesses, and nature or description of an incident. See Also Accident Report
Incidental Entertainment Performers who must be watched to be appreciated, such as mimes, jugglers, dancers, and acrobats. See Also Sight Acts
Incidentals Expenses other than room and tax, billed to a guest’s account (e.g. phone, room service, etc.).
In-City Transport The means of traveling within a city.
Inclusive Price charged clients that includes all applicable gratuities and consumption taxes.
Inclusive Cost Quoted cost; no extra costs to be added. Usually refers to tax and gratuity for food and beverage functions.
Inclusive Rate 1) The amount charged for a room, usually including breakfast (or other meals), taxes and service charge. See FULL AMERICAN PLAN(FAP). See Also MODIFIED AMERICAN PLAN (MAP). 2) When applied to food or beverage, includes taxes, gratuities and/or service charges. See Also Full American Plan, Modified American Plan
Inclusive Tour A TOUR that includes all elements of an itinerary transportation, lodging, meals, porterage, sightseeing, etc., for a pre-established price. The terms and conditions of a tour contract should specify exactly what is covered. See Also Tour
Income Statement A statement of revenues and expenses. Also known as a profit & loss statement.
Indemnification Clause A contract clause in which one party agrees to pay damages or claims that the other party may be required to pay to another. For example, if a hotel is sued by an attendee that is injured at an event due to the fault of the group, an indemnification clause might require the group to pay back the hotel. Some times the law requires one party to indemnify another even without a specific clause. Generally, the terms of the clause will be followed over the state law. See Also Hold Harmless
Independent Contractor Person contractually retained by another (other than as an employer) to perform specific tasks. The other person has no control over the independent contractor other than as provided in the contract. In the context of group travel, a tour manager or tour brochure designer/writer might be retained in this capacity.
Independent Service Contractor Any company, other than the designated “official” contractors, providing services (display installation and dismantling, models/demonstrations, florist, photographer, audiovisual, etc.) employed by the exhibitor needing access to an exhibit any time during installation, event dates, and/or dismantling.
Independent Show Management Company 1) A contractor hired by an exhibitor to perform event services independent of event management-appointed contractors. See EXHIBITOR APPOINTED CONTRACTOR (EAC). 2) Any individual or company hired to perform event services on a contract basis. See Also Exhibitor Appointed Contractor
Independent Union Labor union not affiliated with organizations e.g. Congress of Industrial Organizations or the American Federation of Labor.
Indirect Costs Also called overhead or administrative costs, these are expenses not directly related to the event. They can include salaries, rent, and building and equipment maintenance.
Indirect Spending Spending by a host destination’s travel industry businesses on goods and services from local suppliers on behalf of a specific event. See Also Direct Spending , Economic Impact (Total) , Induced Spending
Individualized Learning Patterns Learning activities that the learner completes by him/herself.
Induced Spending Occurs when employees in a host destination’s travel industry and its suppliers spend their wages in the local economy. This chain of buying and selling among businesses and employees continues until the original direct spending leaks out of the local economy. See Also Direct Spending , Indirect Spending , Economic Impact (Total)
Inducements Marketing tools or programs used to influence buying patterns and build customer loyalty.
Inductance Term used to describe the electrical property of an inductor. A mechanical analogy of an inductor is an electrical spring; the inductor can store electrical energy fed into it and return it directly back into the circuit. The inductor tends to block the flow of AC currents depending on their frequency and to pass DC currents.
Induction Loop Inductive transmitter for hearing aids, closed electric circuit within a building or auditorium which relays sound to a hearing aid.
Industrial Show See Also Vertical Show , Horizontal Show
Informal Dress Business suits or jackets with shirts and ties for men and day dresses or suits for women; usually taken to mean office and not recreational wear. Can include informal forms of national dress.
Informal Meeting Informal gathering, not necessarily social.
Information Desk Stand at which an official gives information.
Infrasonic Sound at frequencies generally considered too low to be heard (sounds in the range of 1 to 15 Hertz). Infrasonic sound can be felt if its power level is sufficiently high and can cause nervousness and/or fatigue and disorientation in people exposed to it.
Infringement Use of floor space outside exclusive booth/stand area.
Inherent Vice An insurance term referring to any defect or other characteristic of a product that could result in damage to the product without external cause. For example, instability in a chemical that could cause it to explode spontaneously. Insurance policies may specifically exclude losses caused by inherent vice.
Inherently Flame Resistant Material that is permanently flame resistant without chemical treatment.
In-House 1) Company’s travel reservations and ticketing occur in the company’s travel department staffed by the company’s own personnel. 2) Services offered the client that are directly provided by the company’s own personnel, as opposed to being subcontracted. 3) A guest who is present, i.e. if 300 rooms are occupied, there are 300 guests in house.
In-House Contractor Contractor retained by a facility to be on-site and provide services as needed. In some cases, Planners are not required to use their services, but may be charged a surcharge or facility fee for bringing in an outside contractor for the same service. See Also Exclusive Contractor
In-House Service Service provided directly and entirely within the property.
Injection Modeling Method of protecting exhibit properties.
Inland Bill of Lading A Bill of Lading (B/L) used in transporting goods overland to the exporter’s international carrier. Although a bill of lading can sometimes be used, it is usually necessary to prepare both an inland bill of lading and an ocean bill of lading for export shipments. See Also Air Waybill, Bill of Lading, Ocean Bill of Lading, Through Bill of Lading
Inline Booth/Stand Exhibit space with exhibit booths on either side and back. See Also Inside Booth/Stand
In-Plant Company’s travel reservations and ticketing occur in the company’s travel department staffed by travel agency’s personnel.
Input Level Level in units such as dB, volts or watts that a particular piece of electronic equipment receives at its input. Input levels are alternately described as nominal (the normal operating level) or maximum (the level above which distortion occurs).
Inquiry Card A card, collected from attendees, requesting information about exhibitors. See Also Lead
INS Marks chalked on the floor showing where drapes are to be hung.
Insert 1 ) Matted or framed portion of a picture. 2) Additional shot added to a scene at a later time. 3) Interchangeable copy or art panels.
Inside Booth/Stand Exhibit space with exhibit booths/stands on both sides and back. See Also Inline Booth/Stand
Inside Marketer Sales rep: employee of speaker.
Inspection Trip See Also Familiarization Trip , Site Inspection
Installation Setting up exhibit booth/stand and materials according to instructions and drawings.
Installation & Dismantle I&D 1) The set-up and teardown of exhibits. 2) Firm that does I&D work. See Also Erection
Installer Skilled labor used to set up displays at events. The union affiliation of the installer will vary based upon the locale and the facility in question.
Institute In-depth instructional meeting providing intensive education on a particular subject.
Intangible Assets Non-physical assets such as patents, trademarks, a customer base, brand recognition of your products, etc. Also known as goodwill.
Integrated Marketing Marketing activities with a common focus on the marketplace or a customer segment. The execution of each individual piece of the integrated marketing plan is consistent with, and supportive of, each of the other pieces of the plan.
Integrated Meeting A meeting which forms part of a larger event.
Integrated Symposium A symposium which forms part of a larger event.
Intelligent Lighting Lighting instruments that can be computer controlled to move light around the room, and project color and patterns on screens, scenery, walls or floor.
Interactive Exhibits Exhibits in which the visitor is involved with the exhibit in a proactive way.
Interactive Learning Learning activities in which learners participate together.
Interactive Response A system which enables the audience to respond to prepared questions by means of a multifunction keypad. Responses are fed to a computer which tabulates them and displays the results graphically on a projection screen.
Interactive Video Video programming which allows the viewer to be involved in an active way with the information to be presented. Often used in exhibits.
Inter-City Transport The means of traveling between two cities.
Intercom Audio system permitting two-way communication.
Interiorscapers Designers/decorators who specialize in using decorations to enhance event and create a theme.
Interline Connection An airline connection which involves transferring from a plane of one airline to that of another carrier. Also Called OFF-LINE CONNECTION.
Interlock Synchronization of two or more sound and/or picture sources.
Intermediate Carrier A carrier that transports a passenger or piece of baggage as part of an interline movement, but on which neither the point of origin nor destination is located.
Intermezzo Intermission. The pause in dinner service just prior to the entree. A sorbet is usually served to cleanse the palate. A short period of dancing may also be included.
Intermodal Tour TOUR using several forms of transportation such as plane, motorcoach, cruiseline and railroad to create a diversified and efficient tour package. See Also Tour
International Event An event that draws a national and international audience. Typically 15% or more of attendees reside outside of the host country.
International Freight Forwarder An independent business which handles export shipments for compensation. At the request of the shipper, the forwarder makes the actual arrangements and provides the necessary services for expediting the shipment to its overseas destination. The forwarder takes care of all documentation needed to move the shipment from origin to destination, making up and assembling the necessary documentation for submission to the bank in the exporter’s name. The forwarder arranges for cargo insurance, makes the necessary overseas communications, and advises the shipper on overseas requirements of marking and labeling. The forwarder operates on a fee basis paid by the exporter and often receives an additional percentage of the freight charge from the common carrier. In the United States, an export freight forwarder must be licensed by the Federal Maritime Commission to handle ocean freight and by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) to handle air freight. An ocean freight forwarder dispatches shipments from the United States via common carriers, books or arranges space for the shipments, and handles the shipping documentation. See Also Freight Forwarder
International Sales Agent An individual or firm that serves as the foreign representative of a domestic supplier and seeks sales abroad for the supplier. See Also Agent
Internegative Film negative of motion picture made from original raw negative to facilitate making of positive copies in quantity.
Internet Service Provider ISP A service that provides access to the Internet.
Interpretation The process of explaining or translating. See Also Consecutive Interpretation, Interpretation in Relay, Simultaneous Interpretation, Translation, Whispered Interpretation, Wireless Infrared Interpreting System
Interpretation in Relay Oral translation utilizing two interpreters. Because the first interpreter is not master of the second language, another makes the final interpretation to the audienceSee Also Consecutive Interpretation, Interpretation, Simultaneous Interpretation, Translation, Whispered Interpretation, Wireless Infrared Interpreting System
Interpreter An individual who explains or translates. See Also Interpretation
Interpreter’s Booth/Stand A soundproof cubicle in which the interpreter works.
Intro A slang term for an introduction.
Introduction A carefully written opener about a speaker, which is delivered by the introducer at the beginning of a speech. A good introduction gives some ideas of the speaker’s credits, achievements, and honors and also answers the question: “Why this speaker, on this date, for this audience?”
Inventory Total amount of furniture, equipment or other goods available in stock.
Invitation Letter Letter to a potential speaker outlining the preliminary purpose and plans of an event and requesting their services.
Invitation Program A provisional program sometimes incorporating a call for papers. The program gives details of venue, participants, agenda, accommodations, etc.
Invited Paper Paper or speech on a specific subject submitted at the request of an event’s organizers. See Also Guest Speech
Invited Speaker A person who is invited to deliver a speech during the conference. Costs of travel, housing and appropriate appearance fees usually are provided for in the conference budget.
Invocation Prayer at the beginning of a function.
Invoice An itemized bill, including prices, of goods and services sold or shipped.
Involuntary Upgrade Airline moves passenger to higher priced class at no charge.
IP Address Internet Protocol Address. A numeric value unique to an individual computer that allows a signal to find that computer on a network. The IP address is assigned through an Internet Service Provider (ISP) or network administrator.
IPO Individual Pays Own. See Also EPO , Pay Own
Iris A device used to alter the size of the beam of light, usually with an aperture near the gate of the fixture.
ISES International Special Events Society. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Island Booth/Stand Booth/stand space with aisles on all four sides.
Island Exhibit A three-dimensional display exposed to aisles on all four sides. See Also Free Form
Isometric A perspective-like drawing, except that all lengths have the same proportion.
Itinerant Reusable exhibit or display with scheduled shipping from place to place.
Jacket 1) Clear plastic covering to protect slides. 2) Short coat for the upper body, typically worn by food servers, bellmen, etc.
Jacobs Ladder A series of horizontal panels held together with a vinyl bank. These panels flip to expose the opposite side when top horizontal panel is mechanically turned.
Jambon Ham.
Jan Joint Army-Navy specification. Pertains to the stringent government specifications used for electronic components of specified quality or survivability or of tightly maintained quality control, and often means these parts will last longer, withstand higher temperatures voltages, currents, etc., than their consumer counterparts.
Janitorial Service Service offered for cleaning booths/stands, facilities, etc.
Jardinière Diced, mixed vegetables (jardin is garden in French).
Java 1) Slang for coffee. 2)An object-oriented programming language invented by Sun Microsystems. Java runs over the Internet and provides a secure environment for writing and executing World Wide Web applications.
J-Bar Long-handled wooden pry bar with metal tip and wheels used in freight handling. Also Called JOHNSON BAR.
Jewel Light Colored plastic or glass insert used in front of a light source in panel faces to identify, pinpoint, etc., areas.
Jig Shop or bench set-up for making repetitive assemblies.
Jigger A 1-ounce measure used in making alcoholic drinks.
Jigger Spout Adapter on a liquor bottle used to eject a premeasured amount. Often called Posi-Pour™ which is a trademarked brand name for this type of device.
Jigging Special dividers, sectioning and protective padding inside exhibit crates.
Jigsaw Narrow blade set in a frame used with a vertical motion for cutting along wavy or irregular lines.
JLG Brand name for equipment capable of lifting a person or persons to a given height. See Also High Jacker, Man Lift, Scissor Lift, Genie Lift, HI LOW, Forklift/Forktruck
Job Box See Also Trouble Box
Job Description List of duties that make up a particular job position.
Job Foreman One who is in charge of specific projects.
Job Specification List of qualities (e.g. work experience, education) a job applicant needs in order to be considered for a particular job.
Johnson Bar Long-handled wooden pry bar with metal tip and wheels used in freight handling. Also Called J-BAR.
Joint Agreement Union contract covering more than one employer and a union, more than one union and an employer, or a number of employees and a number of unions.
Joint Fares Through-fare for travel on two or more airlines.
Jointing Technique of rendering lumber surfaces perfectly straight and smooth so as to permit a perfect fit. This operation is usually performed on continuous automatic machine called a jointer.
Jones Plug Multi-prong electrical connector.
Journeyman Worker who has satisfactorily completed an apprenticeship in a skilled trade.
JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group. A graphic file format that has a sophisticated technique for compressing fullcolor bitmapped graphics, such as photographs. JPEG is most commonly mentioned as a format for image files.
Julienne Vegetables cut in long thin slices.
Junction Box A distribution point for electrical power.
Junior Suite A hotel room that features a separate living-sitting area (although not a separate room), in addition to the bedroom.
Jurisdiction 1) The jobs that may be performed by a specific labor union. 2) The locality where a contractual dispute is decided. 3) In law, the ability of a court to hear and decide a matter brought before it.
Jurisdictional Dispute Conflict between unions concerning the right to control certain jobs in a particular trade or industry.
Jury-Rig To construct or rig in a temporary and makeshift way.
Justified Type Type set with both margins flush often leaving odd spaces between words.
Kbps Kilobits per second. A rate of data transmission over a computer network.
KD Knock Down. Exhibit or display components requiring onsite assembly.
Keg Cask-like container holding bulk quantities of beer, wine, soda pop, or soda pop syrup.
Kelvin Temperature The temperature at which a light source should be in order to produce the proper color of light.
Key Card Plastic card used in place of room key.
Key Light Principal source of focused, intense illumination on a subject or area.
Keynote Opening remarks or presentation at a meeting that sets the tone or theme of the event and motivates attendees.
Keynote Address A session that opens or highlights the show, meeting or event.
Keynote Speaker Speaker whose presentation establishes the theme or tone of the event.
Keystoning Distortion of a projected image on a screen, where the image is wider on top and narrower on bottom. The image distorts from a rectangle into a trapezoid because the projector is above or below the center point of the screen; either the top or the bottom become wider because it is further away from the lens. To adjust for keystoning, the top of the screen can be tilted a little, either forward or back. Many data projectors allow you to tilt the lens to solve the problem.
KHz See Also Kilohertz
Kick Base Base molding or band added to structure to absorb marring caused by brooms, mops, etc.
Kickback A payment (money or property) made in return for influencing a buying or hiring decision. Generally thought of as an illegal payment, especially if it is not disclosed. See Also Blind Commission
Kilohertz One thousand cycles per second; replaces the obsolete term kc (kilocycles). Abbreviated kHz.
Kimchee (KIHM-chee) A spicy-hot, extraordinarily pungent condiment used in Korean cuisine. It is made from fermented vegetables, such as cabbage or turnips, that have been pickled, stored in sealed pots or jars, and buried in the ground. It is dug up and used as needed. Alternate spelling is Kimchi.
Kine Kinescope. Motion picture record of a television program.
King-Size Bed Large bed usually measuring 76-by-80 inches (190-by- 200 centimeters). A long king-size bed measures 76-by- 84 inches (190-by-213 centimeters).
Kiosk 1) Free-standing pavilion or light structure, often inside a facility, where printed or electronic information is available. 2) A small enclosure for ticket sales, information, etc.
Kit See Also Exhibitor Manual
Klieg Light See Also Ellipsoidal Spotlight
Knock Down KD Exhibit or display components requiring on-site assembly.
Knowles Theory Proposes that for adults to learn, the following must be addressed: adults need to know why they need to learn something; adults need to learn through experience; adults view learning as problem solving; adults only learn when the material is immediately relevant.
Kodalith Type of film.
KOH A light fixture that is installed from catwalks, ceilings, or truss systems, and can easily light up a 10×20 booth/stand space. It cannot be installed on the exhibit itself due to the temperature at which it burns.
Kosher Food prepared according to Jewish dietary laws pertaining not only to the type of food that may be eaten, but to the kinds of food that can be combined at one meal (e.g. meat and dairy may not be mixed). To meet kosher standards and receive the kosher seal, food must be prepared under a rabbi’s supervision. In addition to the kinds of animals considered kosher (pigs and rabbits are among the non-kosher group), the laws also decree that animals be fed organically grown food and killed in the most humane manner possible. Kosher foods are becoming popular with health-conscious consumers.
Kraft Paper An inexpensive wrapping paper.
Kreplach Jewish ravioli.
L&D Loss and Damage.
L/C Document issued by a bank per instructions from a buyer of goods, authorizing the seller to draw a specified sum of money under specified terms. See Also Letter of Credit
LA Letter of Authority.
Labor Refers to contracted workers who perform services. See Also Craftsperson
Labor Call 1) Method of securing union employees. 2) Time specified for labor to report, (e.g. 8:00 a.m. call). 3) Minimum amount for which union labor must be paid. See Also Call
Labor Desk Location in exhibit hall where exhibitors can order labor on-site.
Labor Form Form used by exhibitors requesting labor at exhibition. Usually found in the EXHIBITOR MANUAL. See Also Exhibitor Manual
Labor Policy The principles established by a company to govern its dealings with its employees.
Labor Relations Dealings between an employer and its employees or their representatives concerning matters of mutual interest.
Labor Union Workforce organization requiting various rules to be followed by the employing facility advocating the well being of the workers.
Lag Bus A coach which lingers at a destination to move group members who may have missed the scheduled vehicles.
Lagniappe Creole term for giving something extra or unexpected.
Lahvosh Cracker bread.
Lamination The bonding under pressure of two or more materials to form a layer or sandwich of materials, e.g. plywood, plastic laminate.
Lamp Light source for a projector.
Lamp Life Estimated hours of a lamp’s (light bulb’s) usefulness.
LAN Local Area Network. A computer network limited to the immediate area, often the same building or floor of a building.
Lanai Patio or balcony overlooking a garden or water.
Land Operator A company that provides local services, transfers, sightseeing, guides, etc. See Also Receptive Operator
Landscape 1) Sign where width is larger than height; horizontal. 2) An area of ground that has been arranged for human use and enjoyment usually with plants and structure.
Langostino Spanish for prawn (jumbo shrimp).
Langouste French word for Spiny Lobster (giant crawfish).
Langoustine French word for prawn (jumbo shrimp).
Lanyard A cord or string worn around the neck, as in corded badges.
Large Group Patterns Learning activities that require the participation of a large group of learners.
Laser Pointer A compact instrument consisting of a visible light laser, used for pointing out features on a projected visual display.
Last Call The final announcement to order bar beverages before bar service ends.
Last Name Name by which all immediate family members are known. Women usually (but not always) adopt their husband’s surname upon marriage. See Also Family Name, Given Name
Late Registration A booking that is received after the stated deadline, usually incurring a penalty fee.
Launch The commencement of a new product or show into the market.
Lav See Also Lavatory, Microphone, Lavaliere
Lavatory Sanitary convenience. Also Called TOILET, WATER CLOSET (WC).
Layout Artist’s or designer’s indication of how a printed piece should look.
Layover A city on an itinerary where a passenger deplanes and spends time before continuing.
Lazy Susan Manually rotated tray on ball bearings. See Also Turntable
LCD Liquid Crystal Display. Display composed of mobile crystals in liquid suspension which align themselves and polarize light in response to a small electric charge. The crystals are manufactured in pockets within the display which correspond to areas of dark on light background.
LCD Projector A self-contained unit with a LCD (liquid crystal display) panel, light source and lens that works with both PC and Mac computers and duplicates the image being shown on the monitor without any need for special software or complex setting up. See Also Data Projector, LCD
LCL Less Than Carload.
LDP Last Day to Purchase a ticket against an existent reservation.
Lead 1) According to the International Association of Convention & Visitors Bureaus, when an inquiry by a corporation/association/organization/independent event organizer that includes a request for a minimum of 10 sleeping rooms over a specific set/range of dates is forwarded by the CVB sales staff only to those hotels that meet the event organizer’s event criteria. A lead is more formalized than just exchanging/forwarding business cards to hotels. For convention center events, if the CVB sends a lead first to the convention center for date availability and then to the hotel(s) for room blocks as a matter of policy, this process should be counted as one (1) lead for reporting purposes. (rhymes with “seed”). 2) Potential customer. See SALES LEADS. 3) Amount of space between lines of type (rhymes with “dead”). See Also Sales Leads
Lead Dispatcher On-site person responsible for overall transportation success or management.
Lead Retrieval The process whereby exhibitors receive a potential customer’s contact information in a standardized manner. A system for capturing and following-up on leads generated at an exhibition.
Lead Sheet Sales leads (RFPs) generated through a convention & visitors bureau or sales organization and forwarded out to potential suppliers. See Also Request for Proposals, Convention and Visitors Bureau
Lead Time Time between when arrangements are made and when an event occurs, etc.
Lead Tracking A manual or automated system used to conduct follow-up activities for sales prospects resulting from an event.
Leader Utility tape added to beginning or end of audio tape or film.
Leadman Employee who sets the pace for a group working on the same job or as a team.
Leakage The unwanted pickup of stray sound from sources other than the intended source feeding a specific microphone channel.
Learning Environment The physical, emotional, psychological, physiological and social factors surrounding the learning experience.
Learning Environment Specialist LES A designation offered by the Professional Convention Management Association (PCMA).
Lectern A stand upon which a speaker may rest notes or books. May be “standing,” which rests on the floor, or “table-top” which is placed on a table. Often confused with PODIUM. See Also Podium
Lecture Informative and instructional speech.
LED Light Emitting Diode. A solid-state diode rectifier whose atomic properties cause it to emit light when electric current is passed through it. Current LED technology allows the emission of light from infrared through green frequencies, and visible light LEDs are available in colors from deep red to green.
Leg The part of a trip between two scheduled stops.
Legal Connection Prescribed minimum time to leave one flight and board another.
Leisure Services A service concerned with the organization of free or unoccupied time.
Leko Type of adjustable spotlight used to light lecterns, signs and areas that need a tightly focused pool of light. See Also Ellipsoidal Spotlight , Lectern
Lenticular Screen Screen finish with a characteristic silver-colored finish which has brighter reflective characteristics than a matte screen but with a wider viewing angle than a beaded screen. See Also Silver Lenticular Screen
LES Learning Environment Specialist. A designation offered by the Professional Convention Management Association (PCMA).
Less Than Truckload LTL Rates applicable when the quantity of freight is less than the volume of truckload minimum weight.
Lessee A person or entity who has possession of real or personal property under a lease. A tenant of real property under a lease.
Lessor Person or organization which conveys property under a lease.
Letraset Trade name for self adhesive vinyl letter.
Letter of Agreement Contract. Document outlining proposed services, space, or products which becomes binding upon signature by authorized representatives of both parties. It lists services, foods, beverages, and so forth.
Letter of Credit L/C A document issued by a bank per instructions from a buyer of goods, authorizing the seller to draw a specified sum of money under specified terms. See Also Confirmed Letter of Credit
Level Level of audio volume. The term level refers to the power magnitude in either electrical watt or acoustic watts but is often incorrectly used to denote voltage. See Also Gain
LFR Lowest Fare Routing. The least expensive airfare available to the destination.
Liability Legal responsibility. An obligation to pay an amount in damages. In a non-legal context, something that is a negative factor.
Liability Clause Part of a contract outlining conditions of liability.
Liability Disclaimer Legal statement releasing the organization from responsibility for any arrangements made by attendees with services listed by the organization (e.g., child care).
Liability Insurance An insurance policy that protects you in the event that there is bodily injury or property damage to other people. The liability can be because of negligence or a failure to live up to promises made under a contract.
Liability Law System of laws designed to protect people from damages caused by a party behaving in a negligent manner and creating or being responsible for harm as the result of that behavior.
Liaison A close collaboration for smooth coordination.
Liaison Interpreter Person interpreting a conversation between two or more persons from one or more foreign languages into his mother tongue and vice-versa.
License Written permission granted by an authority to engage in a specific action or business.
Licensing Agreement A right or permission granted by the owner of a property (tangible or intangible) to engage in some business or occupation or engage in some transaction, which would be unlawful without such right, or permission. A business arrangement in which the manufacturer of a product (or a firm with proprietary rights over certain technology, trademarks, etc.) grants permission to some other group or individual to manufacture that product (or make use of that proprietary material) in return for specified royalties or other payment. Many convention center agreements are written as license agreements.
Lifelong Learning An ongoing process in which an individual actively seeks to understand and contribute to change.
Lift Number of airplane seats available on flights to a destination.
Lift Truck Forklift.
Light Bar A bar with a light that hangs behind a header.
Light Box Enclosure with lighting and translucent face of plastic or glass.
Light Organ Electronic device which allows sound waves to determine the color or intensity of lighting. An outmoded term and device from the 60’s; we now have audio sensitive controllers.
Light Table Illuminated glass-covered table used for viewing and editing slides.
Lightface Light type distinguished from medium or boldface.
Lighting 1) Service offered by electrical contractor for illumination. 2) Booth/stand or hall illumination. 3) Existing light provided by the venue for functionality and safety. 4) Controlled application of the art of lighting to impact sales, achieve atmosphere and otherwise enhance the experience of the event.
Lighting Control Console Desk-type housing, used to contain the controls required for adjusting production lighting. See Also Master Control
Lighting Director Person who designs the lighting, directs placement of lighting equipment, and calls lighting cues on-site.
Lighting Grid Structures used to support lights and electrical outlets.
Lighting Plot A print showing the location and type of all lights used in a booth/stand.
Lighting Truss A construction of tubular steel or aluminum alloy onto which lighting instruments are hung and which is in turn suspended above the stage or exhibit.
Likert Scaling Common question format, which uses standardized response options.
Limited Consumption Bar Host establishes the maximum dollar amount to be spent at an open bar. Bar is closed or converted to cash when limit is reached.
Limited Power of Attorney Permits the customs broker to complete the customs document upon the return of your shipment to the country of origin. A Power of Attorney allows one person to act as agent for another. A Limited Power of Attorney grants the right to act in only limited circumstances.
Limiter Audio amplifier whose output amplification rate of change is less than its input signal amplitude rate of change. While compressors are used to reduce the dynamic range of program signals either to make everything sound louder, or to automatically control sudden large changes in signal amplitude such as in the case of recording vocalists, limiters are used to prevent dynamic transient signal peaks from exceeding a pre-set amplitude. Limiters are usually required when broadcast signals are fed to telephone lines and are useful to prevent power amplifiers clipping and overdriving in large sound systems. Limiters sometimes include circuits that allow the user to adjust the time it takes to start reducing the signal amplitude (attack) to ease up on the compression (release), and also the input and output gain.
Line Level Average (power) level at which a signal is output from devices like mixers, cassette decks and other devices which process sound. Technically, this corresponds to – 30 dBM (one microwatt) to +30 dBM (one watt).
Line of Sight Unobstructed line of vision from audience to stag. See Also Sightlines
Line Switch Electrical on/off switch used directly in wiring to control, by make or break, the flow of current.
Linear Display Linear exhibits are generally 10’ deep. They are offered in 10’ or 15’ widths and can be combined to create an exhibit of almost any length.
Linen Tablecloths and napkins. See Also Napery
Link Using hypertext, a link is a selectable connection from one word, picture or information object to another. From a Web site, a link points to content.
Liqueur Sweet alcoholic beverages made by infusing flavor from seeds, fruits, herbs, flowers, nuts or spices with a spirit, such as Brandy, Rum or Whiskey. Essential oils and extracts are used for flavor. Less expensive brands use artificial flavoring. Most liqueurs are made with secret formulas. Also called cordials, they are high in alcohol and range from 49 proof for Cherry Heering to 110 proof for green Chartreuse. The crème liqueurs, such as Creme de Menthe, are sweeter and more syrupy. Liqueurs were originally used as a digestive. They are usually served after dinner but are part of many cocktails. Liqueurs can also be used in cooking (e.g. desserts). Examples are: Absinthe, Amaretto, Anisette, Benedictine, Cointreau, Creme de Cacao, Creme de Cassis, Drambuie, Frangelico, Galliano, Grand Mariner, Irish Mist, Kahlua, Midori, Ouzo, Pernod, Sambuca, Sloe Gin, Southern Comfort, Tia Maria, Triple Sec. See Also Cordial
Liqueur Cart Rolling cart that includes a selection of cordials. Usually passed after dinner.
Liquid Crystal Display LCD Display composed of mobile crystals in liquid suspension which align themselves and polarize light in response to a small electric change. The crystals are manufactured in pockets within the display which correspond to areas of dark on light background. See Also LCD
Liquidity The percentage of an enterprise’s assets that can be quickly converted into cash.
Liquor 1) A distilled, alcoholic beverage made from a fermented mash of various ingredients including grains or other plants. Examples: Bourbon, Gin, Vodka, Rum, Scotch and Tequila. Also called Spirits. 2) An oyster’s natural juices are referred to as its liquor. 3) Pot liquor or pot likker refers to the liquid resulting from cooking meats or vegetables.
Liquor License A U.S. state granted right to sell and/or serve alcoholic beverages. Liquor license requirements vary by jurisdictions. Always check local liquor laws. There are three basic types of licenses: 1) On-Sale: Liquor is sold and must be consumed on the premises (bar or banquet room). 2) Off-Sale: Liquor is sold unopened and must be consumed off the premises (liquor store). 3) Beer and Wine: not authorized to sell spirits. Liquor licenses are based on the physical premises. If you are holding an event at a venue without a liquor license, you must obtain a temporary permit.
List of Exhibitors List of exhibiting firms, usually with location of their exhibit. May be arranged alphabetically, by category, or both and usually lists personnel who will be in attendance.
List of Participants Register of delegates and accompanying persons attending an event.
Listing A speaker grants the right to a speakers bureau to list the speaker as available. See Also Bureau Listing
Lit Rack Literature Rack. Device used to hold literature or brochures.
Liter Metric unit of measurement used to package spirits and wines. Equal to approximately one quart (33.8 ounces). Alternate spelling is Litre.
Literature Rack Devices used to hold literature or brochures. Also Called LIT RACK.
Litre Metric unit of measurement used to package spirits and wines. Equal to approximately one quart (33.8 ounces). Alternate spelling is Liter.
Load Chart Chart showing the weight of shipments loaded in a trailer and the position in the vehicle of larger items, dangerous articles or special-attention shipments.
Load Factor Average number of seats occupied.
Load In/Out Scheduled times for crew to load and unload equipment.
Load Site Location from which participants will board vehicles for transfers.
Loading Dock Area on premises where goods are received. Usually a raised area that backloading trucks can back up to and offload freight easily.
Loadlock A metal brace to secure partial loads within trailers and railway cars.
Lobby 1) Public area which serves as an entrance or waiting area. 2) To engage in actions designed at influencing public officials toward a desired action.
Local Organization of employees in one area or in one company or a group of companies, chartered by and affiliated with a national or international union.
Local Beer/Wine Beer or wine produced or distributed locally. Often boutique wineries or microbreweries.
Local Committee A group of people bringing specific expertise of the locality and facilities of a given area.
Local Event An event, such as a graduation ceremony, local festival, etc., that draws its audience primarily from the local market. Typically 80% of attendees reside within a 20% mile (80 km) of radius of the event site. Local audiences typically do not require overnight accommodations. See Also National Event, Regional Event, State/Province Event
Local Fare An airfare published by a carrier between two cities.
Local Host A group of local people who carry out the strategies and policies established for the organization of an event held in their geographic area. See Also Organizing Committee
Lockout 1) Refusal by a facility to allow guests access to their guest rooms. 2) Labor action where employers refuse access to the facility by employees.
Lock-Up Storage area which can be locked.
Logistics Procurement, maintenance and transportation of materials. Involves all related functions and services.
Logo Symbol, often trademarked, that identifies an organization or event.
Long Distance Dialing The ability to place, and control billing for long distance telephone access, usually from an event room or show floor location. Directions on whether or not long distance dialing should be available from a specific location during an event should be indicated on function orders associated with that location and be included in the event’s specifications guide. See Also Restricted Dialing
Loop Closed electric circuit.
Loop Fabric Fabric to which Velcro® fastener fabric will adhere.
Loop Projector Projector modified to run film that has been spliced into continuous loop.
Loose Jig Removable support in shipping case.
Loss Leader Item offered by a retailer at cost or less than cost to attract customers. Also referred to as a price leader.
Lost Opportunity An event in the lead or tentative stage that is subsequently lost by a destination or facility. This does not include venue changes within a destination. According to the International Association of Convention & Visitor Bureaus, the local CVB should track the number of estimated room nights, attendance and attendee spending and the reason associated with the lost opportunity. Sometimes called LOST BUSINESS.
Loudness Sound volume as it is detected by the average human ear. Hearing is non-flat, and this non-flatness varies with changes in absolute SPL (Sound Pressure Level).
Loudspeaker Audio speaker used to magnify sound in a function room or large area.
Lounge 1) A public room (as in a hotel, club, or restaurant) where cocktails and other drinks are served. 2) A room or other area in an event venue designated as a place for attendees to rest and/or get refreshments.
Low Season Period when the demand for a supplier’s product or service is lowest. Prices general decrease in low season. ASee Also High Season
Low Voltage Term applied to currents of 24 volts or less. Must be transformed from normal 110 volt input. Useful in animation, lighted model, etc.
Low-Balling Giving a deceptively low price or estimate.
Lowboy A type of truck that can be adapted for picking up loads at ground level.
Lower Case Small letters, as distinguished from capital letters. Abbreviated lc.
Low-Key Lighting Lighting in which picture intensity produces limited bright areas.
LTA Lost Ticket Application. An application to request a refund on a lost airline ticket. There is often an additional charge for the application.
Lucite Term defining plastic similar to Plexiglas, an acrylic plastic.
Lumiline Slim, cylindrical, incandescent lamp; used as a substitute for fluorescent lamps where dimming is required.
Lunch A light noonday meal, sometimes with speeches or presentations. Sometimes called Luncheon.
Luncheon Lunch. A light noonday meal, sometimes with speeches or presentations.
Lyonnaise Cooked with onions (e.g. Lyonnaise Potatoes).
MA Form Document required by Canadian Customs identifying shipper, seller, consignee, terms, date of shipment, material being sold/shipped, classification code, quantity, unit and total prices. Additional information required on the invoice depends on shipper and consignee arrangements. See Also Canadian Customs Invoice
Macédoine (mass ee dohn) Mixture of vegetables or fruits.
Magnetic Key Systems Means by which doors in hotels or other facilities are locked or unlocked. Usually, these are cards as opposed to actual keys. The system permits security staff members to know what key was used to enter the room and at what time.
Magnetic Sound Sound that is recorded on magnetic tape and may be incorporated on a film.
Magnum Wine bottles that contain 1.5 liters; equal to 2 standard bottles of wine.
Mag-Stripe Magnetic Stripe. A lead retrieval system using a magnetic strip on either the back of a paper badge (similar to some airline tickets) or on plastic badges similar to credit cards.
Mailing House Company equipped to handle bulk mailings on behalf of an organization.
Mailing List List of names and addresses of the persons to whom publicity material or other information is to be sent.
Main Tent Room or hall where business sessions and entertainment productions are held.
Maître d’/Maître d’ Hôtel Floor manager or head waiter at a restaurant or catered function. Responsible for all aspects of meal service.
Major Arrival Information included in the specifications guide for an event that notes approximate dates and times at which large numbers of event attendees can be expected to arrive at a facility (hotel) for check-in. This is intended to give the facility notice in order to prepare for front desk staffing. See Also Group Arrivals/Departures
Major Departure Information included in the specifications guide for an event that notes approximate dates and times at which large numbers of event attendees can be expected to check out of a facility (hotel). This is intended to give the facility notice in order to prepare for front desk staffing. See Also Group Arrivals/Departures
Make Work Practices Union practices for spreading work by limiting production or by requiring employment of more workers than necessary for a particular job. See Also Featherbedding
Man Lift Equipment capable of lifting a person or persons to a given height. See Also High Jacker, JLG, Scissor Lift, Genie Lift, HI LOW, Forklift/Forktruck
Management Committee See Also Executive Committee
Management Prerogatives Rights and powers essential to operation of business such as hiring, production methods and the like, which management claims are outside the scope of collective bargaining and over which management maintains authority and responsibility.
Manager A person hired to manage a speaker’s or entertainer’s business and/or personal affairs. The job of manager may include marketing the speaker’s services for more bookings or performing public relations work for the speaker.
Managing Director A principal executive officer.
Manhattan Clam Chowder Clam soup made with a tomato base.
Manifest Final official listing of all passengers and/or cargo aboard a transportation vehicle or vessel.
Manpower Agency Firm specializing in providing day-labor workers.
Marine Insurance Broadly, insurance covering loss or damage of goods at sea. Marine insurance will typically compensate the owner of merchandise for losses sustained from fire, shipwreck, piracy, and various other causes, but excludes losses which can be legally recovered from the carrier. See Also Credit Risk Insurance
Mark Taped or chalked symbol on studio or stage floors designating exact placement of props and actors.
Marker Board See Also White Board
Market Exclusivity When the speaker limits the speakers bureau/agency to offering the speaker’s services to a particular market or markets.
Market Life Cycle The period of time that a substantial segment of the buying public is interested in purchasing a given product or service.
Market Penetration Pricing Strategy Method by which cost of an item is derived, based on whether or not near term income is critical, and rapid market penetration for eventual market control is desired.
Market Segments Categorization of people, organizations or businesses by professional discipline or primary areas of interest for the purposes of sales analysis or assignment.
Market Share The percentage of the total sales (from all sources) of a service or product represented by the sales made by an enterprise. i.e. sales divided by total sales.
Marketing A process of identifying human wants and needs, and developing a plan to meet those wants and needs. Refers to everything involved with convincing an attendee to come to the event. Also refers to providing information to support the exhibit sales function.
Marking Letters, numbers and other symbols placed on cargo packages to facilitate identification.
Marking the Carpet Placing rolls of aisle carpet at the end of each aisle to facilitate laying the carpet, which is the last thing done before the event opens.
Markup Difference between the cost and the selling price of a given product. Difference between the net rate charged by a tour operator, hotel, or other supplier and the retailselling price of the service. Generally a percentage of the net rate rather than a fixed amount, as in a 20 percent markup on the net.
Marscapone Cheese A rich Italian cream cheese, often used in Tiramisu.
Marshalling Yard A holding area where trucks or buses check in and wait for instructions before delivering or picking up freight or passengers.
Mask Scenic drape used to obscure undesirable view from the audience or to protect or cover. Also, an item used or worn to hide the face or covering an item with masking tape.
Masking Sound applied to an environment to provide privacy in open areas. The term “masking” refers to the so-called “cocktail-party effect” where certain conversations are hard to pick out because similar sounds mask them. The ear-brain can be fooled into not hearing certain sounds if other sounds at lower volume but sufficient complexity are simultaneously present. Pink noise is most often used to cause intentional masking; its spectrum is shaped or filtered and fed to loudspeakers hidden above an acoustical tile ceiling.
Masking Drapes Drapes used to cover storage and other unsightly areas.
Masonite Trade name for hardboard.
Mass Learning Patterns Learning activities delivered through mass communication media.
Master Original copy of something, such as an audio or videotape recording or filmed production.
Master Account A record of transactions during an event where the resulting balance is paid directly by the group. May include room, tax, incidentals, food and beverage, audiovisual equipment, decor, etc. Also Called MASTER BILL.
Master Bill See Also Master Account
Master Control See Also Lighting Control Console
Master Key One key that will open function and guest rooms.
Master Monitor Video monitor which shows only the picture being aired.
Master of Ceremonies Person who presides over the program (MC, EMCEE).
Material Handling Services performed by GENERAL SERVICE CONTRACTOR that includes delivery of exhibit materials from the dock to assigned space, removing empty crates, returning crates at the end of the event for re-crating, and delivering materials back to the dock for carrier loading. It is a two-way charge, incoming and outgoing. Formerly known as DRAYAGE.
Matte Lusterless surface.
Matte Screen Screen having a flat or matte white finish which does not reflect as effectively as a glass-bead screen, but can be viewed from virtually all front angles.
Matte White Type of non-shiny screen surface used for front projection. It is the least expensive type of screen.
Matzo Ball Soup Jewish dish with large dumplings.
Max Floor Plan A computer assisted drawing showing the optimum utilization of a facility space for tradeshow layout of booths/stands.
Maximum Permitted Mileage The mileage a passenger is permitted to travel for a given fare.
Maximum Pick-Up Number Every week leading up to an event, the event organizer should receive a room pick-up report from each hotel involved in the event. One of those weeks will have a very high number (which is the maximum pick-up number). This information is important to include in a POST EVENT REPORT.
Mbps Megabits (millions of bits) per second. A rate of data transmission over a computer network.
MC (em-see) See Also Master of Ceremonies , Emcee
MC Cable Flexible armored electrical cable accepted as insulated by most codes; two, three, or more wires available. See Also AC Cable , BX Cable
MCO Miscellaneous Charge Order. A document used by ticketing locations to record deposits, extra charges, hotel and pet fees, etc.
Measurement Ton A space measurement, usually 40 cubic feet or one cubic meter. Cargo is assessed a certain rate for every 40 cubic feet of space it occupies.
Medallion Small, round piece of meat.
Media Kit Packet of information that is supplied to the media; contains all the details of an event that are required to attract media attention and attendees.
Mediation Dispute resolution process in which the parties use a third party to assist them in reaching a compromise. The mediator may work with both sides together, or may act as “go between” in an attempt to move the sides toward agreement. The mediator may act informally, or be appointed by a judge or by agreement of the parties through an alternative dispute resolution organization like American Arbitration Association (AAA) or Judicial Arbitration and Mediation Service (JAMS). Unlike arbitration, a mediator is not empowered to impose a decision on the parties.
Medical Meeting An event whose attendees relate to the health care or medical research industries.
Meet and Greet Service for meeting and greeting a person upon arrival in a city, usually at the airport, pier or rail station and assisting him or her with entrance formalities, collecting baggage and obtaining transportation.
Meeting An event where the primary activity of the attendees is to attend educational sessions, participate in meetings/discussions, socialize, or attend other organized events. There is no exhibit component to this event. See Also Convention , Exhibition , Trade Show , Consumer Show
Meeting Announcement Leaflet or brochure with essentials about a coming event.
Meeting Management Company A company, representing another organization, handling site selection, negotiations and turnkey support for an event.
Meeting Manager See Also Planner
Meeting Point Meeting place in venue for individual appointments of delegates.
Meeting Profile A written report outlining statistics of previous events, anticipated use of all services, profile of attendees, hotel occupancy patterns, etc.
Meet-the-Press Set-Up Panel set-up with questioners placed opposite guest panelists and moderator.
Menu Pricing A pricing plan that lets the organization see an itemized list of fees for goods and services.
Merchandise Mart Facility containing showrooms and offices with a modest amount of permanent space. Outside the United States, world trade centers showcase the exports of countries in buildings similar to merchandise marts.
Mesclun Field greens for salads.
Message Board An electronic message center or online discussion group, usually serving a special-interest group. They allow you to review messages left by others, and leave your own message if you choose. Also known as bulletin board systems or electronic forum. Also, a bulletin board on which messages can be tacked up.
Message Center A place where mail and messages are kept or transmitted.
Metric A system of weights and measures, based on decimals, used throughout much of the world. Basic units are the gram for weight and the meter for length. When calculating conversions, the same figure (0.236) is used whether converting to or from metric. The difference is that, when converting to metric (as from cups to liters), you multiply the number of cups by 0.236 to get the equivalent in liters. When converting from metric (as from liters to cups), you divide the liters by 0.236 to get the cup equivalency.
Metropolitan Hotel Hotel located in the downtown area of a large city; usually close to shopping and other points of interest.
Meunière Sautéed in butter with lemon and parsley and seasonings (most often served with sautéed fish as in Trout Meunière).
Mic See Also Microphone
MIC Meetings Industry Council. Local gathering of meetings industry related groups for the purpose of promoting awareness of and partnership in the industry.
MICE Meeting, Incentive, Conference/Congress, & Exhibition. An internationally used term for the events industry.
Microphone Instrument which converts sound into electrical signals for transmitting or recording sound.
Microphone, Bipolar See FIGURE EIGHT MICROPHONE.
Microphone, Boom MICROPHONE mounted on an extension. See Also Microphone
Microphone, Cardioid Pronounced “car-dee-oid.” A MICROPHONE with a polar pattern that is heart-shaped. Cardioid microphones decrease gradually in sensitivity as they are rotated away from the source of sound they are aimed at. See Also Microphone
Microphone, Cordless Portable MICROPHONE operating on its own power source. Often used to pass through an audience for questions or comments. Also Called WIRELESS MICROPHONE. See Also Microphone
Microphone, Figure 8 MICROPHONE with a sensitivity pattern shaped in a figure eight when seen from above. See Also Microphone
Microphone, Floor MICROPHONE mounted on an adjustable floor stand and intended to remain in the same location throughout a presentation. Also Called STATIONARY OR STANDING MICROPHONE. See Also Microphone
Microphone, Hot MICROPHONE that is turned on. See Also Microphone
Microphone, Lavaliere A wired or wireless microphone that hooks around the neck or is clipped to clothing. Sometimes called a NECKLACE, LAPEL, or PENDANT MICROPHONE. See Also Microphone
Microphone, Lectern MICROPHONE attached to a lectern. See Also Microphone , Lectern
Microphone, Lip MICROPHONE designed for use in contact with the lips of the speaker. See Also Microphone
Microphone, Necklace Portable MICROPHONE that hooks around the neck or is clipped to clothing. Sometimes called a LAVALIER, LAPEL, OR PENDANT MICROPHONE. See Also Microphone
Microphone, Omnidirectional MICROPHONE that picks up sound from all directions. See Also Microphone
Microphone, Pendant Portable MICROPHONE that hooks around the neck or is clipped to clothing. Sometimes called a NECKLACE, LAPEL, OR LAVALIER MICROPHONE. See Also Microphone
Microphone, PZM Pressure Zone Microphone®. Also called a BOUNDARY Microphone. This type of microphones can be placed on a large surface such as a table, floor, wall, or lectern. It picks up sound from entire room and is often recommended for conferences, group discussions, interviews, lectures, and recordings.
Microphone, Radio MICROPHONE used for transmitting radio waves. See Also Microphone
Microphone, Roving A small MICROPHONE, with or without a wire, which can be moved easily through an audience for questions or comments. See Also Microphone
Microphone, Shotgun UNIDIRECTIONAL MICROPHONE that has a very narrow angle of sensitivity and can be used to collect sound from a distance because surrounding sounds are not heard. See Also Microphone
Microphone, Stationary or Standing MICROPHONE mounted on an adjustable floor stand and intended to remain in the same location throughout a presentation. Also Called FLOOR MICROPHONE.
Microphone, Table MICROPHONE on a short stand placed on a table for seated speakers. See Also Microphone
Microphone, Unidirectional MICROPHONE that picks up sound primarily from the direction in which it is pointed. See Also Microphone
Microphone, Wireless Portable MICROPHONE operating on its own power source. Often used to pass through an audience for questions or comments. Also Called CORDLESS MICROPHONE. See Also Microphone
Mid Office A record finishing and quality control processing that occurs after the initial receipt in the front office. This processing is usually accomplished using software-based office products and MIS.
Midget Microphone Small microphone. See Also Microphone
Military Meeting An event at which attendees are affiliated with one of the armed forces, or are suppliers to the armed forces.
Minestrone Italian vegetable soup.
Minimum Smallest number of covers and/or beverage served at a catered event. A surcharge may be added to the client’s bill if the minimum is not reached.
Minimum Call Agreed upon minimum number of hours of work to be done by a worker under the labor agreement. In cases where the work to be done is shorter than the minimum call, the worker is guaranteed payment for the full minimum.
Minimum Connecting Time The minimum time required for carriers to transfer passengers and baggage from one flight to another.
Minimum Connecting Time The minimum time required for carriers to transfer passengers and baggage from one flight to another.
Minimum Truckload Weight above which a shipment is charged at a truckload rate.
Mini-Suite See Also Junior Suite
Minny Van shipment weighing 20%0 lbs. or less, for which the minimum charge is the 20%0-lb rate. Carrier minimums vary.
Minny A van shipment weighing 20%0 lbs. or less, for which the minimum charge is the 20%0 lb. rate.
MINT Meeting Industry Network (formerly CINET or Convention Industry Network). On-line information network tracking historical and future site/booking information. CINET is provided by IACVB to its members.
Minutes Formal written record of a meeting.
Misconnect Insufficient time is allowed for connection between planes.
Missed Connection A term to describe the situation when a passenger fails to transfer to a flight.
Mitre The joint created when two pieces of material cut at equal angles butt together to form a corner.
Mix 1) Visual repetitive and/or alternating projection of two different slides on the screen used to add emphasis. 2) (Sound) adjustment of each microphone for volume and sound quality.
Mixed Grill A plate of grilled or broiled meats, which can include lamb chops, beef, bacon and sausages and is usually accompanied by grilled or broiled mushrooms, tomatoes and potatoes.
Mixed Truckload Truckload of different articles, crated and uncreated, in a single shipment.
Mixer Audio unit by which sound signals from all sources feed into one system; allows for dissimilar inputs (microphone and line) to be combined and controlled into one output. See Also Sound Board
Mixing Combining audio or audio sources.
Mixing Board See Also Sound Board
Mock Bearnaise Sauce Made by adding a tarragon reduction to mayonnaise, which is more stable than Hollandaise and therefore will not break. In off-premise catering, if sauce cannot be prepared on-site, mock bearnaise must be used because the real product will not travel without breaking.
Mock-Up A full-scale model of proposed structure.
MOD Manager on Duty. Person at a facility in charge of operations and/or guest relations for a certain period of time.
Model 1) An object made in miniature representing something to be constructed. 2) A person stationed in an exhibit to demonstrate a product, provide attraction to booth/stand or greet visitors. See Also Talent
Modem Modulator-demodulator. Computer component that enables a computer to send and receive data over telephone or cable lines.
Moderator Person who presides over panel discussions and forums.
Modified American Plan MAP A type of room rate that includes breakfast and one other meal (usually dinner). See Also Demi-Pension, American Plan, Bermuda Plan, Continental Plan, European Plan
Modular Exhibit An exhibit that uses standardized components (e.g., panels, frames) that can be assembled and reassembled in different configurations for different needs.
Modular Panels Partition units (walls, doorframes, etc.) in standard sizes, used for building booths/stands in the sizes desired in that context.
Mom & Pop A small, family-owned business. Often used in terms of a “Mom & Pop Exhibitor or Vendor.”
Monaural Having one ear. Monaural headsets (with a single earpiece) are typically used by telephone operators, stage managers and disco operators.
Monitor Television set with denser pixels and direct audio and video input.
Monitor Video or audio device used to maintain a reference on the sound or video that is being sent out to the audience. Audio feeds given to performers are also referred to as monitors but do not necessarily represent the sound sent to the audience. See Also Cue Channel
Monitor Mixing Console Sound board used to regulate and mix sound heard on stage.
Mono See Also Monophonic
Monochrome Images reproduced on a black and white television system.
Monophonic Sound from one source, such as a single loudspeaker or earphone. In most concert performances, this is the type of sound provided to the audience. See Also PA System
Montage 1) Composite made by combining several separate pictures.2) Rapid succession of images to illustrate an association of ideas.
MOR Middle of the Road. A mixture of contemporary, top 40, and soft music.
Moral Hazard A condition of morals or habits that increases the probability of loss from a peril. An extreme example would be an individual who previously burned his own property to collect the insurance.
Mornay Sauce Cream sauce thickened with eggs and grated cheese.
Motel An establishment that provides housing with limited services for persons away from home. Also Called MOTOR INN.
Motion Formal proposal to be discussed and voted on in a meeting.
Motor Coach A large, comfortable, well-powered bus that can transport groups and their luggage over long distances.
Motor Coach Captain Motor coach captains count passengers and are responsible for the safe loading and unloading of guests. They also assist field supervisors and venue managers.
Motor Coach Field Supervisor Person responsible for motor coaches arriving at/departing from a specific location. Coordinates with the route manager, provides updates and requests for additional motor coaches on route. Responsible for captains and human arrows at location.
Motor Coach Shuttle System A method or plan for an established, orderly transport of participants by buses between facilities.
Motor Coach Tour Operator A company that creates tours in which group members are transported via motorcoach to their destination, itinerary activities, and back.
Motor Inn An establishment that provides housing with limited services for persons away from home. See Also Motel
Motorboating Undesirable oscillation in an amplifying system or transducer, usually of a pulse type, occurring at a low audio frequency.
MOU Memo of Understanding
Moussaka Greek layered casserole with chopped meat and vegetables.
Mousse 1) Light, airy dessert dish made with beaten egg whites and whipped cream. 2) Finely ground meat, seafood, or poultry served in a mold.
Mousseline 1) Any sauce to which whipped cream or beaten egg whites have been added just prior to serving to give it a light, airy consistency. Mousseline sauce is hollandaise blended with whipped cream. 2) Various dishes based on meat, fish, shellfish or foie gras to which whipped cream or, less frequently, beaten egg whites are added to lighten the texture. 3) A term applied to any of various dishes or baked goods that have a light and delicate texture.
Movable Wall Walls or light movable panels used for dividing areas or concealing an area. See Also Partition, Air Wall
Move-In Dates set for installation. See Also Set-Up
Move-In/Move-Out Dates Dates set for installation/dismantling of an exhibition.
Move-Out Dates set for dismantling. See Also Tear Down
Moving Decor Staff or actors in costume appropriate to a theme.
Moving Screen Screen intended to provide information and to notify participants who are called away for urgent reasons during the session, without disturbing the event.
MPI Meeting Professionals International. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
MPO Marketing promotional opportunities. Sponsorship of logoed items (e.g. tote bags).
Multi-Channel With two or more communication bands (receivers).
Multi-Channel Tape Tape having more than one channel on which to record.
Multi-Image The protection of two or more images at one time; may be one or more screens.
Multi-Image Slide Presentation Presentation using many slide projectors on one screen. The projectors are arranged so that, by fading from one projector to another, the program is presented. Often this is done on a screen that is wider than one slide image, in which case the images are registered together so as to allow one image to have a panoramic wide view. Most commonly these presentations are produced with a minimum of three projectors.
Multi-Management Firm A company that offers complete turnkey organization support for an event, including administrative and event management services.
Multimedia Use of two or more audiovisual media in one presentation.
Multiple Airport Cities Cities offering multiple airports for scheduled airline service, e.g., New York has LaGuardia and JFK; Washington, D.C. has Dulles and Reagan National.
Multiple Life Experiences The experience that adult learners bring to the learning environment that may help or hinder their learning.
Multiplexer Unit designed for selective projection of 16mm film, 2-by- 2 inch (5-by-5 centimeter) slides, or filmstrips into one television program.
Multipoint Bridge A service provider of videoconferencing which allows multiple sites to connect simultaneously. A bridge connects three or more tele- or videoconference sites for simultaneous communication.
Multipurpose Center Facility that either 1) is equipped in such a way as to allow multiple types of usage (e.g., equipped with telescoping seats adaptable floor rakes or slopes, etc.) or 2) combines many single-purpose buildings under one operation.
Multipurpose Facility 1) A facility that can be reconfigured for another use; for example, an arena that can be converted to an exhibit hall by retracting seats. 2) A building complex containing several different types of facilities, such as a convention center, arena, and theater.
Multi-Screen The use of two or more screens at the same time. Also Called MULTIVISION.
Multi-Sensory Relating to or involving several physiological senses.
Multi-Story Exhibit An exhibit with more than two levels or stories. See Also Double Decker
Multi-Track Conference A conference with parallel program sessions where participants have the choice to follow one or the other road or to jump from one track to the other during the duration of the event.
Multivision See Also Multi-Screen
Murphy Bed Retractable bed built into the wall.
Music License Control of the performance of musical compositions by the composers and authors through granting of a license to perform. Controlled by the copyright laws. See Also ASCAP, BMI
Music Licensing The right granted by one party to let a another party use live or recorded music through special agreements and fee structures.
Music Stands Sheet music holders of varying sizes requiring attached lights when used on darkened stage.
Muslin Wide-loomed fabric used for ceiling artwork.
Mylar Trade name for polyester sheeting, usually clear or decorative metallic reflective finish.
NACE National Association of Catering Executives. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
NACS National Association of Consumer Shows.
Name Card Card placed on a banquet or event table, inscribed with the name of the person designated to sit at that place. See Also Place Card, Table Tent
Napery Tablecloths, napkins, and other fabric table coverings.
Napkin Fold A decorative way of placing napkins at a place setting.
Napoleon Flaky, iced French pastry with cream or custard filling.
National Electrical Code A code issued by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association describing minimum wiring requirements on electrical installations. It includes sections on temporary installations (e.g. construction sites and trade shows), theatrical installations, as well as office, kitchen, and storage areas. The code does not carry the force of law unless adopted by the authority having jurisdiction.
National Event An event that draws a national audience. Typically more than 40% of attendees reside outside of a 400 mile (640 km) radius of the event city. See Also Regional Event, State/Province Event, Local Event
National Union Union having membership only within the United States.
Naugahyde A synthetic, leather-like material.
NBTA National Business Travel Association.
NCBMP National Coalition of Black Meeting Planners. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
NCR Form Multi-page pressure-sensitive form where multiple copies are made by writing on the top copy of the form. NCR stands for No-Carbon Required.
Near-Plant A situation where a company’s travel reservations occur at a travel agency or within the company and ticketing occurs at the travel agency branch by travel agency personnel.
Neck Microphone Portable microphone that hooks around the neck.
Negative Image Reversed image of art or type.
Neoprene A rubberlike material.
Nesting Multiple objects fitting together in order to conserve space and improve safety for shipping or storage.
Net Fee The amount of his/her fee a speaker will actually receive for a booking after agency or bureau fees and before expenses.
Net Net Actual cost of a travel program excluding mark-ups or commissions.
Net Rate Non-commissionable rate.
Net Square Feet/Meters Actual amount of salable space used by exhibit booths/stands which excludes aisles, lounges, registration areas, etc. See Also Gross Square Feet/Meters
Net Weight Weight of goods without the shipping container.
Net Wholesale Rate A rate usually slightly lower than the wholesale rate. The rate is marked up by retail sellers, of the tour, to cover distribution, promotion, etc.
Net Worth Assets minus liabilities.
Network Two or more computers or peripherals that are linked together for the purpose of sharing data.
Networking The exchange of information or services among individuals, groups or institutions.
Neutral Beverage Non-alcoholic drink, including soda, juice, bottled water, etc.
New England Clam Chowder Clam soup made with milk and potatoes, as opposed to Manhattan Clam Chowder, which has a tomato base.
New Registration Generally, a registration received at the conference and sometimes incurring payment of a penalty fee. See Also On-Site Registration
News Release See Also Press Release
Newsgroups On-line discussion groups. Newsgroups make up the worldwide bulletin board system called Usenet that contains more than 14,000 newsgroups that cover every imaginable interest group.
Nineteen Hundred Box Metal electrical junction-box normally accommodating electrical receptacles.
NMFC National Motor Freight Classifications.
No Freight Aisle Areas on the exhibit floor used as a thoroughfare, so crates are prohibited. Designated with red tape. An aisle that must be kept clear at all times during installation and dismantling.
Noise Any unstructured and generally unwanted signal in an audio or video signal. Hum, buzz, hiss, crosstalk and rumble are typically classed as noise. See Also Random Noise, White Noise, Pink Noise
Noise Floor Intrinsic noise of an electronic device or system. The noise that remains in the absence of signal.
Noix Walnuts.
Nomenclature of the Customs Cooperation Council The customs tariff used by many countries worldwide, including most European nations, but not the United States. It is also known as the Brussels Tariff Nomenclature. See Also Standard Industrial Classification, Standard Industrial Trade Classification
Nominal Operating Level Design target signal level of audio circuits. See Also Headroom
Non-Performance To neglect to carry out an agreement.
Non-Profit An organization whose members may not benefit financially from its net proceeds.
Non-Refundable Fare A fare that, once issued, cannot be refunded. Most nonrefundable tickets are re-usable to some degree and can be used toward future travel on the same carrier for the same passenger if rebooked prior to the original date of travel.
Non-Sked Airline offering charter services on a non-scheduled basis.
Non-Smoking Area Room or area where smoking is prohibited.
Non-Stop Flight A flight from one city to another with no stops in between. Not to be confused with DIRECT FLIGHT.
Non-Transferable A ticket that cannot be changed to another name once issued.
Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier NVOCC Transportation company that operates by obtaining wholesale space from other carriers and reselling it. Does not operate its own vehicles.
No-Op Flight not operating.
Nori Sheets of roasted seaweed used to wrap sushi (sticky rice and fish eaten raw).
NOS Not Otherwise Specified.
No-Show Reservation made, but not kept. Any person, group or exhibitor who fails to appear to claim a meal reservation, exhibit space or ordered service. Participant did not attend, nor cancel according to cancellation guidelines; an exhibitor that does not show up to claim booth/stand space; a hotel guest who does not honor a reservation; a speaker/entertainer who does not arrive.
Not-for-Profit An organization that exists with the intention of providing a service for its members.
Nouilles Noodles.
Nouvelle Cuisine French for new cooking, referring to a culinary style, begun in the 1970s, that moved away from the rich, heavy style of classic French cuisine toward fresher, lighter food served in much smaller portions. The sauces are lighter because they’re reduced instead of being thickened with flour, butter and heavy cream. Vegetables are quickly cooked and are tender yet slightly crisp.
NRA National Restaurant Association.
NSA National Speakers Association. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
NSPF Not Specifically Provided For.
Number Stand Stand used to hold numbers designating specific meeting areas or reserved tables.
NVOCC See Also Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier
O/A Open Account.
O/N Order Notify.
OAG ™ Official Airline Guide. Published in geographically oriented editions, it provides information relative to airline schedules as well as airports, types of equipment, connecting times, etc.
Objective Formalized statement of outcomes to be anticipated as a result of the educational process.
O’Brien Sautéed with onions and green peppers (e.g. Corn O’Brien).
Observer Delegate to an assembly who observes and reports but does not participate officially in its activities.
Obstructed View View of stage, from audience seating, which is blocked.
Occupancy Rate 1) In hotel/motel industry, the percentage of total number of available sleeping rooms actually occupied. Derived by dividing the total number of rooms occupied during a given time period (night, week, year) by the total number of rooms available for occupancy during that same period. 2) Measurement of building use, usually expressed as an annual percentage rate comparing potential facility capacity to actual usage. See Also Exhibition Occupancy
Ocean Bill of Lading A bill of lading (B/L) indicating that the exporter consigns a shipment to an international carrier for transportation to a specified international market. Unlike an inland B/L, the ocean B/L also serves as a collection document. If it is a “Straight B/L,” the foreign buyer can obtain the shipment from the carrier by simply showing proof of identity. If a “Negotiable B/L” is used, the buyer must first pay for the goods, post a bond, or meet other conditions agreeable to the seller. See Also Air Waybill, Inland Bill of Lading, Through Bill of Lading
Octave Doubling or halving of frequency. The numerical interval, for example, between 440 Hz and 880 Hz or 220 Hz is an octave.
Oeuf Egg.
Off Camera Performance or action not seen on camera, such as a narration.
Off Premise Catering Foods usually prepared in a central kitchen and transported for service to an off-site location.
Off-Airport Location Site of a car rental operation service ay an airport but not located on airport premises. Travelers are shuttled from the airport to the car rental site.
Offer A promise, proposal or other expression of willingness to make and carry out a contract under proposed terms with another party which has the ability to accept it upon receiving it. Space and rent proposal from a facility. It may be in the form of a contract or license agreement.
Office Suite Similar to a hospitality suite, but geared more exclusively toward typical office communications services (i.e. phone, fax, computer, copier).
Official Airline Airline contracted by the sponsor of an event to provide special deals or amenities to attendees.
Official Airline Guide OAG™. Published monthly in several geographic editions, providing information on airline schedules as well as airports, types of equipment, connecting times, etc.
Official Banquet Formally seated evening dinner which is normally included in the registration fee and at which speeches are made.
Official Carrier Airline company designated airline of choice for an event in exchange for special rates or services.
Official Contractor Organization appointed by show management to provide services such as set-up and tear-down of exhibit booths and to oversee labor, drayage and loading dock procedures. Also known as GENERAL SERVICE CONTRACTOR. See Also General Service Contractor
Official Language Language in which an organization states that it will conduct all of its business.
Official Opening Ceremony, ribbon cutting, etc. to proclaim event officially opened.
Official Reception Reception for conference participants hosted by local or governmental authorities or other officials.
Official Supplier/ Contractor A supplier appointed by the event organizer to be the preferred provider of a given service. See Also General Service Contractor
Off-Line 1) Non-route airline ticketing service. 2) Computer application performed while not connected to a computer network.
Off-Line Connection Connection through a particular city with a change of aircraft and continuing on same airline. See Also Interline Connection
Off-Season See Also Low Season
Offset 1) A photographic printing process. 2) Transfer of freshly printed wet image onto back of another sheet of paper.
Offshore Meeting An event taking place outside of the country of the originating body.
Off-Site A term that describes any function or activity that occurs away from the primary event facility. Examples of its use include “Off-Site Food & Beverage,” “Off-Site Venue,” etc. See Also Off Premise Catering, On-Site
Offstage Not in view of the audience.
Oignon French for onion.
Oil Cloth Waterproof material used for signs, banners, table coverings, etc.
On Consumption A term used in food and beverage that refers to the purchasing option based on the amount utilized by the group. The organization pays for the food and beverage based on the actual food and beverage served.
On-Airport Location A car rental operation at an airport terminal.
On-Center Refers to measurement of space from center of a solid object (such as a COLUMN) to another point.
On-Demand 1) The opposite of real-time. 2) Audio and/or video programming available on a Web site after the completion of an event, providing this content so Web site visitors can listen or view at their discretion. 3) FAX system for sending out faxed material upon request.
One for Fifty Often represented as 1/20%. Facility complimentary room policy: one complimentary room night for every fifty room nights picked up and paid for. While 1/20% was once the standard, the complimentary policies vary per hotel and/or event.
One Shot Exhibit or display fabricated for one use only.
One Ten/Sixty Common term describing normally available current in North American Continent. The full expression is 110 volt/60 cycle. Many European and South American areas have 220 volt/20% cycle power only.
One-Sheet A one-sheet piece of printed advertising. These are often produced and distributed to help promote a speaker’s product or services.
One-Stop-Shop A single source provider of goods or services.
Online 1) Connected to a computer network, such as the Internet. 2) Accessible via a computer or computer network.
On-Line Connection 1) Change of planes on same airline. 2) Internet Service Provider or browser.
Online Registration Registration made via the Web.
On-Site A term that describes any function or activity that occurs at the primary event facility. An example of its use is “On- Site Food & Beverage,” which is food and beverage ordered through a headquarters hotel’s catering department. See Also Off Premise Catering, Off-Site
On-Site Management Details that the event manager must supervise at the site of the event.
On-Site Office Organizations’ temporary headquarters office that is set up on-site to handle business during the event.
On-Site Order See Also Floor Order
On-Site Registration Process of signing up for an event on the day of, or at the site of, the event.
Opaque Projector Equipment designed to project the image of an opaque object, such as a sheet of paper.
Open Rooms are available for sale or occupancy.
Open Bar Private room bar set up where guests do not pay for drinks. See Also Host Bar, Sponsored Bar
Open End 1) Unlimited number of winners. 2) Roundtrip airline ticket with no return date. 3) No final amount or date established. See Also Incentive Travel
Open Insurance Policy A marine insurance policy that applies to all shipments made by an exporter over a period of time rather than to one shipment only.
Open Jaw An itinerary with flights into one city and departure from another, e.g., travel from Dallas to Reno, return from Denver to Dallas.
Open Seating 1) Guests can sit anywhere. 2) Extra banquet tables are placed, but not fully set; these can be prepared quickly if there are more guests than expected.
Open Shop Company in which union membership is not a condition of employment. Usually, a company which has no union at all.
Open Space Session Breakout facilitation where topics for conversation emerge from the group. People who want to lead a conversation post discussion topics during a morning news gathering. Then, participants split up and go to the topic area they want to discuss. Everyone is asked to go to the topic that they have the most passion and interest around. The underlying assumption is that whoever shows up to the topic are the right people to be there. No assignments are made. Each group is asked to take notes so that they can share back or publish their ideas. Some people may decide to be “butterflies” moving from group to group over the course of the conversation time. If no one shows up it means that there is no interest in that topic. People can make more of a difference and have a greater impact on things that they are passionate about.
Open Ticket Ticket, valid for transportation between certain points, indicating no specific reservation.
Open Union Union which maintains no prohibitive restrictions for membership. It may be a union which agrees to accept any qualified employee of the employer as a member of the union.
Open-Ended Type of question format in which respondents are asked to communicate a response in their own words.
Opening Address Formal speech given at the commencement of a meeting to welcome participants; usually given by an eminent person. See Also Keynote
Opening Ceremony The formal general session at the beginning of a congress or convention.
Opening Hours Hours during which an exhibition is open to the public or trade visitors.
Opening Session Meeting or meetings of a predetermined period of time, which begin a congress or convention and in which the principal items on the agenda are usually introduced. Usually a general or plenary session.
Operations Performing the practical work of operating a program. Usually involves the in-house control and handling of all phases of the services, both with suppliers and with clients.
Operations Manager Individual in charge of performing the practical and detailed work of program. See Also Operations
Operator A loose term that may mean Destination Management Company (DMC). See Also DMC
Optical Sound Sound that is recorded by photographic means on film.
Opt-In An email marketing campaign that only sends messages to users who have requested (or opted-in) to receive specific types of information. Email conference reminders and newsletters are examples of opt-in email marketing campaigns based upon permission marketing. See Also Permission Marketing
Option 1) Space which is reserved but not yet contracted for. The right of first refusal to confirm a tentative space reservation if there is demand from another group. 2) Options – Activities other than those included in the formal agenda which are optional and often require the payment of an additional participation fee done at the guest’s discretion. See Also Tentative Hold
Option Date A prearranged date by which a hotel or facility will no longer hold tentative arrangements for a group.
Optional Tour A TOUR or side trip offered at a designated date, time and price. See Also Tour
OR Owner’s Risk.
Oral Presentation Contribution made verbally.
Oration A formal and dignified public discourse.
Orator Someone who speaks eloquently in public.
Order of Preference A system which ranks dignitaries according to international protocol for purposes of seating, honors or ceremonies.
Organizer The entity that produces the event.
Organizing Committee A group of local people who carry out the strategies and policies established for the organization of an event held in their geographic area. See Also Local Host , Executive Committee
Organizing Secretariat Staff providing secretarial services to the organizer.
Original Language Initial language in which a document is drafted or a speech is delivered.
OS&D Over, Short and Damage.
Oscillation Moving back and forth in the same path. May also refer to electric voltages that move back and forth through a zero voltage reference.
Oscillator Device that oscillates. Sound is the oscillation of air caused by a mechanical oscillation such as that from a moving piano string or drum head. An electronic oscillator is a device containing circuits designed to produce electrical oscillations that are maintained, usually at a constant amplitude, and may have other specific characteristics that suit them for use as circuit test signals.
Oscilloscope Electronic test instrument which produces a visible image of electrical signals such as oscillations or waveforms on a viewing screen.
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Act.
OT 1) Overtime. 2) On Truck or Railway.
OT Labor Work performed on overtime, billed at either time-andone- half or twice the published labor rates.
OTR Over the Road. Freight that moves on the road, typically shipped directly to the convention center.
Out of Order OOO Room under renovation or requiring maintenance.
Out Take Taped or filmed scenes not used in the final production.
Outbound Operator A company that takes groups from a given city or country to another city or country.
Outbound Tour Any tour that takes groups outside a given city or country to another city or country. See Also Inbound Tour
Outlets 1) Electrical outlets. 2) Restaurants, lounges or retail stores within a facility.
Out-Plant Company’s travel reservations occur at company’s travel department staffed by company; ticketing occurs at travel agency.
Outside Exhibit Booth/stand located outdoors.
Outside Line Telephone line from in-house phone to the outside (offproperty) phone, obtained through the in-house operator.
Outside Vendor Supplier who is not directly associated with the facility.
Outsource To subcontract a task or responsibility to a supplier to handle some aspect of an event.
Outsourcing Hiring an outside firm or individual to perform the task instead of using in-house staff; to subcontract a task or responsibility to a third party.
Overage Surplus, excess, or extra.
Overbooked 1) A Hotel accepting sleeping room reservations for more hotel sleeping rooms than are available; guests overstay leaving less room inventory for new guests. 2) Oversold airline flights.
Overbooking The practice of confirming more seats or rooms than are actually available. Suppliers state they must overbook to compensate for the high rate of no-show passengers.
Overflow Attendees booked into other facilities after headquarters facilities are full.
Overhead 1) The general continuing costs involved with running a business. 2) Sheet of clear acetate on which images are prepared for overhead projection.
Overhead Projector Equipment which projects an image on a screen by passing light through a transparent slide or other transparency.
Overlay 1) Clear acetate film used to separate different components of art work. 2) Tissue sheet over artwork on which corrections or alterations are indicated. 3) A panel mounted to another surface. 4) A second, smaller tablecloth used for decorative purposes at banquets. See Also Double Cloth
Overnight Service Relates to airfreight service. Overnight does not necessarily mean 24-hour delivery as carriers deal in business days. For example, unless a Saturday or Sunday delivery is specifically requested, tendering an overnight shipment to a carrier on a Friday provides for a Monday delivery. In addition, a shipment might not move until the following day, depending on the time of day it is picked up or loaded. For example, an overnight shipment picked up from a show site at 10:00 pm on Tuesday may not be delivered until Thursday.
Overnight Stays The total nights spent by an attendee at a housing facility during an event, and before and after the event.
Override A commission over and above the normal base commission percentage.
Over-Set Number of covers set over the guarantee. Paid for by the client only if actually consumed.
Oversold Number of confirmed reservations exceeds number of seats on the aircraft. See Also Overbooked
Overstay A guest who stays at a housing facility (hotel, motel, etc.) one or more days longer than his or her scheduled departure date. Also Called STAY OVER, UNDER DEPART. See Also Under-Stay
Overtime Time worked by an employee outside of, or in addition to, regular working time or beyond the standard forty-hour workweek.
PA System Facility’s in-house public-address system.
Pacing Fullness or emptiness, fastness or slowness of a tour itinerary. The scheduling of activities within an itinerary to make for a realistic operation and to give a certain balance of travel time sightseeing, social events and free time and rest.
Package 1) A combination of benefits received by workers as a result of collective bargaining. A package may include wage increases and other benefits or monetary value, such as insurance, paid holidays, paid vacations, and sick leave. The parties agree to a specified amount of increase to be partly applied to rates of pay and partly to the financing of the related benefits. 2) A single-fee booth/stand package offered by event management which might include booth/stand space, one electrical outlet, one table, two chairs and one hour of labor. 3) Tour arrangements combined and sold at a single allinclusive price.
Package Plan A preassembled assortment of services offered to the exhibitor at a fixed price. In catering, refers to purchasing liquor and/or food at a set price per person. For event management, it is providing furniture and/or services to exhibitors for a single fee.
Package Tour A travel offering which provides, at an inclusive price, several travel components that a traveler would otherwise purchase separately.
Packager 1) An individual or organization that coordinates and promotes the development of a package tour and establishes operating procedures and guidelines for that tour. 2) Company that organizes speakers’ demo tapes, press kits, etc. for a fee.
Packet The unit of data sent across a packet-switching network. It contains a destination address.
Packet Switching The method used to move data around on the Internet. In packet switching, all the data coming out of a machine is broken up into chunks. Each chunk has both an origination and destination address.
Packing Case See Also Shipping Case, Crate
Packing List A list showing the number and kinds of items being shipped, as well as other information needed for transportation purposes.
Pad 1) To apply attenuation to a signal (e.g. line level to mic level pad.) A very commonly overlooked problem in audio when interfacing VCRs etc. to mic level inputs in ballrooms, event rooms, etc. A pad can be applied most often by using a ‘filter direct box’. 2) A tablet of paper placed on the table for classroom or conference seating.
Pad Thai Thai noodle dish.
Pad Wrap See Also Blanket Wrap
Padded Van Shipment Shipment, by moving van, of crated or uncrated goods such as large pieces of furniture or display material.
Padding 1) Usually blanket protection for uncrated material. 2) Slipping extra (unwarranted) charges onto an invoice.
Padlock Removable lock with a shackle that can be passed through a staple, ring, or link and then closed securely.
Pads Commonly referred to as moving blankets, these have cotton fill and quilted design to keep filler in place and protect shipments.
Paella Spanish rice dish.
Pager Portable, wireless unit that can receive a signal and brief voice or text message.
Paid Out In-house facility form authorizing cash withdrawal to be charged to master account or individual guest.
Paid-in-Advance Registration Full payment for anticipated room and tax charges at registration; credit for incidentals is not extended. See Also Cash Registration
Pain Bread.
Pain Grillé Toasted bread.
Pallet Wooden platform used to carry goods. See Also Skid
Pallet Wrap Process of wrapping loose items on pallet with transparent plastic wrapping.
Pan Panorama. Sideways movement of a camera to film a wide scene.
Pan Pot Two-circuit volume control used to place the auditory image of a sound from a mixer channel between the left and right speakers.
Panaché Mixed vegetables (usually two vegetables).
Pane Prepared with bread crumbs.
Panel Discussion Instructional technique using a group of people chosen to discuss a topic in the presence of an audience.
Panel Dolly L-shaped dolly with wheels on both the vertical and horizontal sides. Used for moving display panels.
Panel System A prefabricated exhibit composed of connected panels of various sizes and shapes.
Paper Ticket A physical ticket that is issued and presented to the airline representative in exchange for a boarding pass.
PAR 1) Common term for sealed beam spot or flood lamp with self-contained lens surfaced glass. 2) In golf, one less than bogey.
Par Lamp A lamp shaped like an automobile headlight that consists of a tungsten source housed in an enclosed lens, which produces a rectangular beam.
Parabolic Screen Type of front projection screen surface which is rigid and allows only narrow angle viewing.
Parallax Illusion of opacity resulting from the juxtaposition of translucent or polarized surfaces. Also achieved when rows of panels or fins are spaced in such a way as to be seen through when viewed directly, but that appear to be opaque when viewed from an angle.
Parallel Session Session which has some correspondence, similarity, or analogy of subject and aim is simultaneous with another session.
Parcan A 120% watt to 1000 watt lighting instrument that acts like a floodlight providing an even light over a specific area; frequently seen in polished aluminum version, hanging in large groups from a ground support or flying truss system.
Parking Attendant A person who is employed to assist people in parking their motor vehicles in a designated area.
Parlor Room, usually equipped with couches that make into beds, connected to a suite bedroom.
Parlor Suite Hotel living room, usually with a hide-a-bed sofa, connected to an adjoining sleeping room.
Parmentier Served with potatoes.
Participant A person who takes part in an event. See Also Attendee
Participatory Learning Occurs when the participants share knowledge, experience and work together to learn.
Particle Board A structural panel of compressed glued wood chips.
Partition See Also Divider, Movable Wall, Screen
Party Planner Similar to corporate-event producer or DMC. Works with noncorporate clients to design and implement private parties.
Pascal The unit of pressure or stress in the International System of Units (SI). In the United States, PSI (Pounds per Square Inch) is used instead. See Also PSI
Pass Identification card to enable exhibitors to gain access to an exhibition.
Passive Crossover Electrical device composed of coils of wire (inductors) and electrical capacitors, that separates audio frequency bands by filtering action and routes them to different places (such as a woofer and tweeter). The frequency of the crossover’s action is determined by the value of the electronic components inside, and by the loudspeaker driver’s impedance in ohms, which implies that replacing a 16-ohm driver in a particular system with an 8-ohm driver will change the crossover frequency. In such a case, the frequency will rise an octave and the shape of the crossover frequency response slopes will be distorted. Also Called HIGH-LEVEL CROSSOVER.
Passive Language Language into which interpretation is provided.
Passport Government document permitting an individual to leave and re-enter his/her country of legal residence.
Passport A government issued document that allows the citizen of one country to travel into other countries. Required for all international travel.
Pasta Italian for paste, includes spaghetti, rigatoni, mostaccioli, elbows, bowties, fettucini and many other varieties of dried paste.
Paste-Up Arrangement of type and illustrations on an art board.
Pastry Cart Selection of desserts on a rolling serving cart.
Patch 1) To temporarily join wires or slides by overlapping. 2) Plug-in connection between two lines.
Patch Bay See Also Patch Panel
Patch Panel Plug and jack assembly permitting studio outlets to be temporarily connected to dimmer outlet circuits; also found in studio sound systems. Also Called PATCH BAY.
Pâté A combination of finely ground meats and spices forming a loaf. Some pates are spreadable, some are sliced. Classical meats used include goose liver, duck liver, chicken liver, and veal. Usually served as an appetizer.
Pâté de Foie Gras (paw tay de foy graw) Paste made from goose liver.
Patron 1) Guest or Customer. 2) Person who heads a list of supporters.
Patronage Referring to an established customer base.
Pattern of Event Dates The dates during which an event can be conducted. May be designated by specific dates, months, or seasons (Spring, Fall, etc.). An example description is “September 1 – October 30 (excluding Labor Day, Jewish Holidays). This annual meeting must begin on Thursday and end on Saturday.”
Pavilion 1) A designated area within the event highlighting a special product category for marketing and exposure. 2) A group presentation of different companies for the purpose of generating collected impact.
PAX Industry abbreviation for passengers.
Pay Own Each guest pays own guest charges. See Also EPO
Payment Authorization Signed authority to proceed with the payment of an invoice.
Payment Order Written authorization for payment to be made.
Pay-Per-View 1) Some Web-based content such as event Webcasts are made available to online customers on a pay-per-view basis, which means that customers have to pay to access this programming. 2) Video productions accessible to customers who pay for access to this programming.
PBX Operator Switchboard operator.
PCMA Professional Convention Management Association. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
PCO Professional Congress Organizer. European term for DMC (Destination Management Company). Local supplier who can arrange, manage and/or plan any function or service an event.
PD See Also Per Diem
Peach Melba A classic dessert of ice cream served on a peach half and topped with raspberry syrup and whipped cream.
Peak Night Referring to the night during an event when most rooms are occupied by those in attendance.
Peak Season See Also High Season
Peaks Chart or list of AV equipment usage shown as daily totals throughout the duration of an event.
Pêche Peach.
Pedestal A floor support for an exhibit component.
Pegboard Panel Framed panel of perforated hardboard.
Pegged Off An object mounted away from supporting surface with spacers.
Peking Duck Chinese recipe.
Penalty The fee imposed by an airline to change or cancel flights once the ticket (usually a discounted advance purchase) has been issued.
Pending Registration Incomplete registration where the fees, full payment or forms have not been received. See Also Provisional Registration
Peninsula Two or more exhibit spaces back to back with an aisle on three sides. Also Called END CAP.
Peninsula Booth/Stand An exhibit with aisles on three sides.
Penthouse Suite Guest rooms and connecting parlors located on the top floors of a facility.
People Magnets Promotional ideas and devices that have a compelling ability to draw audiences.
PER Post Event Report. A report of the details and activities of an event. A collection of post event reports over time will provide the complete history for an event. See Also Post Event Report
Per Diem Per day. Some event attendees, such as government employees, have a limited amount of money they can spend per day on food and other expenses. Daily allowance for items like food, lodging, etc.
Per Person 1) Daily allowance for things like food, lodging, etc. 2) Goods or services priced and/or purchased according to the number of guests expected to attend the event.
Per Room Rate A flat rate charged for a room regardless of the number of occupants.
Percent of the Gross Type of payment involving a fixed percent of the gross income for that service. This type of agreement is often used by facilities as the rental.
Percent of the Net Type of payment involving a fixed percent of the net income after costs of providing that service. This type of payment is often used in services provided by exclusive contractors within a facility.
Percentage A payment of a percentage of total billings as a condition of getting a contract for work; commission.
Percentage of Change Formula Formula used to establish the variability in cost for future facility services.
Perfect Binding Binding process by which pages are glued together.
Performing Rights Societies Societies whose purpose is to provide collective licensing for copyrighted music. Examples include BMI and SESAC.
Perimeter Booth/Stand Exhibit space located on an outside wall. See Also Backwall Booth/Stand
Perimeter Seating Seating arrangement in which chairs are placed around the walls of a room. The chairs are often meant for spectators to observe an activity or event in the center of the room.
Peripheral Piece of computer equipment intended to increase the function of the system (printer, CD-ROM, etc); audiovisual aids used in an event room.
Peripheral Block A group of rooms that is reserved by a party outside of the ECB but is present in the city as a result of the Main Event (for example, some exhibitors, some international tour groups). A Peripheral Block’s consumed room nights should be credited to the Main Event’s total room nights for historical tracking purposes. A Peripheral Block may be used to help offset attrition charges against the ECB A Peripheral Block usually negotiates its own terms (for example, 1/20%, staff rate, etc.). How do you identify Peripheral Blocks? Event organizers should require each contracted housing facility to report (to the event organizer) what groups are in-house at the same time as the Main Event. Each housing facility should include tour and travel, and wholesalers’ reservations which were booked individually over the dates of the Main Event. See Also Event-Contracted Block
Perk Payment, benefit, or privilege received in addition to regular income or salary. See Also Perquisite
Permanent Exhibit A product display held on a long-term basis, i.e., museum exhibit, office exhibit, mart, showroom, etc.
Permanent Import In case of sales, with payment of duties and value added tax (VAT), or in case of free distribution, disposable or consumables usually exempted from payment of duties and VAT depending on each country. Quantity and value exempted at discretion of customs authorities.
Permanent Office Appointment on a permanent basis to a specific responsibility within an organization; work space existing for a long time.
Permission Marketing An email marketing campaign that only sends messages to users who have requested (or opted-in) to receive specific types of information. Email conference reminders and newsletters are examples of opt-in email marketing campaigns based upon permission marketing. See Also Opt-In
Permit Card Card granting temporary employment rights to a nonunion member, issued by a union having a closed contract with an employer.
Perquisite Perk. Payment, benefit, or privilege received in addition to regular income or salary.
Personal Manager Manager of individual artist or group of artists.
PERT Program Evaluation and Review Techniques.
PERT Chart Organizational flow chart defining responsibilities, due dates and other information.
Petite Marmite French soup with small pieces of beef and vegetables, served in small covered pots with toast float.
Phantom Power Method of providing power to a microphone through the microphone cord that may otherwise need a battery in a power supply case.
Phased Budget Estimated total of revenue and expenditure; divided into subject categories projecting cash needed to meet expenses over a specific time frameSee Also Cash Flow Chart, Budget
Phosphorescent Paint A paint that radiates visibly when activated by ultraviolet light.
Photo Screen A stencil made photographically for silk screen reproduction.
Photostat A reproductive process employing paper negatives.
Phyllo Flaky pastry dough.
Physical Factors The architectural design, furnishing, temperature, and other such factors that impact the learning environment.
Physical Hazard Specific tangible conditions that increase the likelihood that a loss will be greater in severity.
Physiological Factors Factors related to age, memory span, etc, that impact how an adult learns.
Phytosanitary A certificate, issued by the U.S. Department of Inspection Certificate Agriculture, to satisfy import regulations of other countries, indicating that a U.S. shipment has been inspected and is free from harmful plant diseases.
Piano Hinge Continuous fixed pin hinge.
Piano Types Pianos vary in size and quality: concert grand, baby grand, spinet, and upright.
Pica Unit to measure type line length. Approximately 1/6 inch (.43 centimeter).
Picket An organized method of protest usually involving signs, handling out literature, shouting and other disruptive activities.
Pick-Up Number of facility guest rooms actually used out of a room block.
Pièce de Resistance Main course of a meal. Called the entree in U.S.
Pied Piper An individual with a following. Used in the travel industry to refer to a person who may recruit a group. See GROUP LEADER.
Pier Demurrage A charge assessed when the container is removed from the carrier’s control and is not returned within the allowable free time. See Also Container Detention
Pierogi A thin layer of dough, wrapped around a filling, such as cabbage, potato, cheese, prune, etc.
Piggy-Back Describes the act of loading freight on trailers, then shipping the trailers on specially designed rail cars.
Pilaster A rectangular column that usually projects about a third of its width from the wall to which it is attached.
Pillow Gift An in-room amenity left in the evening while an event is underway, that the attendee will discover upon returning to the room. Can be gifts from sponsors, etc.
Pink Noise Filtered white noise that exhibits a constant power in any band of frequencies of the same span percentage. Pink noise is used extensively as an audio measurement signal source because of its uniform power-per-bandwidth characteristic, and it has been suggested that music source material, averaged over a log time period, is roughly equivalent to pink noise in spectral energy distribution. See Also Noise
Pipe & Drape Light-weight aluminum tubing and drapery used to separate exhibit booths/stands, staging areas, and other similar locations.
Piquant (peek aunt) Spicy; highly seasoned.
Pit Sunken area in front of the stage used to accommodate the orchestra.
Pita Envelope or pocket bread.
Pitch 1) Distance between rows of seats on an aircraft. 2) The determining factor of the key of a melody. 3). The adjustable, vertical angle of a given piece of presentation equipment (e.g. a screen, camera or projector).
Pixie Tubes Special high intensity lamps with internal circuits and filaments in shape of numerals.
Place Card Card placed on the banquet table, inscribed with the name of the person designated to sit at that place.
Place of Birth Denotes place of birth (not necessarily nationality).
Place Setting Another name for cover (a combination of flatware, glassware, china and napery).
Plan A top view mechanical drawing.
Planagement Term coined to represent good management through proper planning.
Planner Person whose job it is to oversee and arrange every aspect of an event. Person can be an employee or hired ad hoc by large companies, professional associations, or trade associations to plan, organize, implement, and control meetings, conventions, and other events.
Planning Matrix A grid used to plan meeting formats and finalize subject areas, topics and assignments.
Planting The use of trees and plants to enhance the appearance of an exhibit or a stage.
Plastic Laminate Any one of several of the melamine plastics bonded to paneling for durability and appearance.
Plateau Level, stage, or tier of an incentive travel program at which sales goal has been reached, and participant can then advance to a higher tier by additional qualifying or buy-in.
Plated Buffet Selection of preplated foods and entrees set on a buffet table. Can also be set on a roll-in cart.
Plated Service Foods arranged on individual plates in the kitchen and then served to guests seated at a table. See Also American Service
Platform Raised horizontal surface, stage, or flooring.
Play On/Off Music which accompanies a performer’s or speaker’s entrance/exit onto or from the stage.
Player-Recorder Machine which can be used both for recording tapes and for playing back prerecorded tapes.
Plenary Session General assembly for all participants.
Plexiglas A trade name for acrylic plastic material in common use.
Plug An advertisement, not in the form of a formal ad, but usually a mention—either written or in a publication or given verbally from the platform to help promote a product, service, or individual.
Plug Strip This is a power strip that can be plugged into a 120-volt power supply and allows up to six items to be plugged in. It has its own surge protector built inside and they are used in lieu of cube taps and cobra head extension cords.
Plug-In Extends the capabilities of a Web browser, allowing the browser to run multimedia files. A (usually small) piece of software that adds features to a larger piece of software.
Plumber Trade person responsible for all plumbing installation.
Plus Plus Addition of taxes and service charges to a price when not included, designated by + +.
Plywood Laminated wood of an odd number of sheets glued together. Often used in exhibit construction.
PNR Passenger Name Record. A record a travel counselor creates in a CRS / GDS when making a reservation for a traveler. It contains information about a traveler’s itinerary that includes the identifying code letters and numbers assigned to the reservation. The PNR forms the basic unit of information from which travel management reports are compiled. See Also Sabre
Pocket Program At-a-glance program. A shortened version of the event program giving basic information in a way which is easy to refer to and convenient to carry. See Also At-a-Glance Program
Podium Raised platform where a speaker stands when delivering his or her remarks. Often confused with LECTERN. See Also Lectern, Dais, Riser
Point 1) Measurement of type size. Twelve points equal one pica—approximately 1/6 inch (.43 centimeter). 2) A city, town, village, or other community or area which is treated as a unit for the application of freight rates.
Point Source Sound originating from a single source, or as if from a single source, and filling an entire space. This type of sound system is most often seen in a concert configuration, where the stage and sound system is at one end of the room and no additional sources of sound are used.
Point-of-Purchase Display to show product, where sales can be made.
Point-to-Multipoint Videoconference A videoconference of more than two sites.
Poire Pear.
Pois (pwas) Peas.
Poisson (pwa son) Fish.
Polar Pattern Performance of a speaker or sensitivity of a microphone as if seen on a circular graph with the device being in the center and the pattern representing the distance from the device at which equal performance can be obtained around a circle.
Polar Response See Also Polar Pattern
Poly See Also Visqueen
Pomme Apple.
Pomme de Terre Potato (literally, apple of the earth).
Pommes au Four Potatoes baked in their skins.
Pommes Nouvelle New potatoes.
Pommes Purées Mashed potatoes.
Pop-Up Lightweight display normally shipped in molded plastic crates. See Also Portable Exhibit
Port of Entry Destination providing customs and immigration services.
Portable Exhibit An exhibit that “pops-up” or a self-contained exhibit that is lightweight and easily set up.
Portable Exhibit Lightweight crated display units which do not require forklifts to move them.
Portal 1) Entry, doorway. 2) A Web site or service that offers a broad array of resources and services, such as email, forums, search engines, and online shopping malls to attract and retain a large audience.
Porters 1) Staff which carry luggage for guests using trains, planes, and hotels. 2) Staff which perform cleaning duties.
Portrait 1) Document or sign with greater height than width. Opposite of Landscape. 2) Likeness of a person in a painting or photograph.
Positive 1) Favorable condition/outcome. 2) Exact image of copy as distinguished from reverse image or negative.
Post Metal upright used to support drapes.
Post As Instructions to a facility indicated the exact way a specific function should be listed on the facility’s reader board.
Post Conference Any event which is arranged for the period immediately following the conference proper.
Post Convention Report See Also Post Event Report
Post Event Report PER The industry preferred term for a report of the details and activities of an event. A collection of post event reports over time will provide the complete History for an event. The industry accepted practice is to use the APEX POST EVENT REPORT, which can be found at the Convention Industry Council (
Post-Con Meeting A meeting at the primary facility at which an event occurred just after it has ended. Attendees generally include the primary event organizer, representatives of the event organizer/host organization, department heads at the facility, other facility staff as appropriate, and contractors. The agenda focuses on evaluating the implementation of the event and completing the APEX POST EVENT REPORT. It often includes a final review of bills with accounts payable. See Also Pre-Con Meeting
Post-Conference Registration Registration for an activity or function which follows an event.
Post-Conference Reservation Guest room space following a conference.
Post-Consumer Material An end product that has completed its life cycle as a consumer item and would otherwise have been disposed of as a solid waste. Post-consumer materials include recyclables collected in commercial and residential recycling programs, such as office paper, cardboard, aluminum cans, plastics and metals.
Poster Visual presentation of a specified size, presented on a flat sheet of paper or card, with details of a specific topic.
Poster Board Soft board panel, used for displaying copy and/or graphics.
Poster Exhibition Area with display of posters.
Poster Presentations Informal sessions near poster exhibition to present and discuss contents of posters.
Poster Session 1) Display of reports and papers, usually scientific, accompanied by authors or researchers. 2) A session dedicated to the discussion of the posters shown inside the meeting area. When this discussion is not held in a special session, it can take place directly between the person presenting the poster and interested delegate(s). See Also Abstract Board
Postgraduate Refresher Course Continuing education courses often provided for professional accreditation purposes, and designed to enhance professional knowledge, or reinforce information originally taught as part of a degree program.
Potable 1) (Adjective) A word used to describe a liquid suitable for drinking, e.g. potable water. 2) (Noun) Any beverage, particularly those containing alcohol.
Potage Soup.
POV Privately Owned Vehicle. A vehicle, such as a passenger car, van or small company vehicle, as distinguished from tracks, tractor-trailers and other over the road vehicles.
POV Line Special loading dock reserved for POVs where material is unloaded at prevailing drayage rates.
Power Bandwidth Frequency range over which a power amplifier can produce at least half power (-3dB). This important specification is the actual indication of an amplifier’s true power output capability, since many amplifiers are capable of much higher power outputs if frequency extremes such as those produced by music are ignored.
Power of Attorney An instrument in writing whereby one person, as principal, appoints another as his agent and confers authority to perform certain specified acts or kinds of acts on behalf of the principal.
Power Response Measure of a loudspeaker’s output with reference to its electrical input. Power response includes the total sound energy radiated into the acoustic space around the loudspeaker rather than just on-axis. Flat power response would indicate that a loudspeaker is radiating equal energy into all angles at all frequencies.
Power Strip A cord connected unit having multiple electrical outlets, and over current protection.
Practical Demonstration A special sitting for the demonstration of specific methods.
Pre- & Post Trip Tours Optional extension or side trip package before or after a meeting, gathering, or event.
Pre- or Post-Event Tour Organized outing taking place before (Pre-) or after (Post- ) an event for both attendees and accompanying persons. See Also Tour
Pre-Assigned Seating Predetermined seat assignments.
Pre-Block Assigning a specific guest room prior to the arrival of the guest.
Pre-Con Meeting A meeting at the primary facility at which an event will take place just prior to the event beginning. Attendees generally include the primary event organizer, representatives of the event organizer/host organization, department heads at the facility, other facility staff as appropriate, and contractors. The agenda focuses on reviewing the purpose and details of the event and making final adjustments as needed. See Also Post-Con Meeting
Prefab Pre-built exhibit ready for installation.
Preferred Carrier Carriers that have alliances with exposition service firms and general service contractors. They receive preferential treatment, and some discounts may be obtained by using these carriers.
Preferred Supplier Travel companies with which a corporation signs agreements to provide travelers with discounted rates.
Pre-Finished Paneling Factory finished panels.
Pre-Formed Group A tour group in existence prior to the tour, the members of which share a common bond, interest or organization affiliation. See AFFINITY GROUP. Examples of preformed groups include civic clubs, senior citizen groups and alumni associations. See Also Affinity Group
Pre-Function Space Area adjacent to the main event location. Often used for receptions prior to a meal or coffee breaks during an event. See Also Foyer
Preliminary Draft First draft. The first version of a paper or document which is subject to further amendment.
Preliminary Program The first public draft of an event’s schedule including information on program structure and key speakers, giving details of ancillary activities and usually containing the event registration form. See Also Provisional Program
Preliminary Announcement See Also First Announcement
Premium Beer Higher quality, higher priced beer. Has a higher alcoholic content than light beer and regular beer.
Premium Brand Higher quality, higher priced spirits (hard liquor).
Premium Pay Extra pay over the regular wage rate for work performed outside or beyond the regular working hours, for work on Saturday, Sunday or holidays, for night shift work, for hazardous, dirty or unpleasant work, and for production in excess of established standards.
Pre-Opening Period of time before a property’s soft opening.
Prep Area Space used for food production not visible to guests.
Prepaid Passenger A passenger who has transportation paid for by someone else, usually in another city.
Prepaid Ticket Advice PTA Airline form stating that payment has been made.
Preparation of Paper Instructions regarding the required format to be used for the presentation of a speech, AV requirements, travel, accommodations, etc. See AUTHOR’S GUIDELINES/KIT.
Preparatory Session Meeting of a specific group before the official assembly in order to finalize preparations. See Also Rehearsal
Preplated Items Food placed on plates in the kitchen prior to being served.
Pre-Pleated Material permanently pleated, ready for installation.
Pre-Populate To automatically supply a data field on a form with information
Preprint Printed volume of meeting papers available prior to or at an event.
Pre-Registered Reservation which has been made in advance with the necessary paperwork.
Pre-Registration 1) Registering in advance to attend an event.. 2) At a facility, pre-assigned sleeping rooms available for occupancy. See Also Advance Registration
Pre-Registration List Computer generated list of names pre-registered with a group.
Pre-Reserved Seats Pre-reserved seats are usually held until 30 minutes prior to departure. Because there are a number of revenue passengers that may want to stand by for flights, seats are held for passengers with boarding passes until 10 minutes before departure. Ten minutes before departure, it becomes necessary to begin processing standby passengers. This requires releasing previously held seats of those passengers who have not checked in.
Pre-Sales Items such as books, tapes, videos, etc. sold to client in advance of event versus items sold in back of room after event.
Presenter Person explaining a given topic in an informational session.
Presenter/Discussant Format A panel of three or four experts in certain subject areas are identified, with each giving a brief presentation. After each lecture the other panelists become discussants of the material just offered. At the conclusion of the presentations, the audience is given an opportunity to ask questions of the entire panel.
Pre-Set Service Placing plated foods on banquet tables prior to seating guests.
President Chief Executive Officer of an organization. If there is a Chairman of the Board, the President is usually then Chief Operating Officer.
President of Honor Senior member of the Committee of Honor.
Press Attaché Title given to the person handling all press and media activities excluding advertising. Also Called PRESS OFFICER.
Press Bridge See Also Bridge
Press Clipping/Cutting Article cut from a newspaper or magazine.
Press Conference Event held to communicate information to media representatives.
Press Kit A collection of publicity items that includes: 1) pertinent data on the meeting, such as agenda, historical data, guest speakers, special events, etc. The property, such as photos, descriptions of public space areas, local entertainment, etc. 2) information relative to a sponsor’s products or services.
Press Office Agency that collects and distributes information to the news media.
Press Officer See Also Press Attaché
Press Release A prepared statement released to the news media. Can be “For immediate release,” or at a specified time or date; an article intended for use by the media about a company, product, service, individual, or show. Also Called NEWS RELEASE.
Press Room A room where members of the media may obtain exhibitor press kits, conduct interviews, or relax. Larger press rooms contain typewriters, computers, phones, and fax machines for use by the press in filing their stories.
Pricing Decision making process of ascertaining what price to charge for a given tour once total costs are known. Involves determining the mark-up, studying the completion and evaluating the tour value for the price to be charged. Usually a management function.
Primary Market Foreign countries where the U.S. Travel & Tourism Administration (USTTA) maintains an office.
Prime Rib Prime Rib is often used for what is really a rib roast. The term “prime” refers to the highest USDA beef grade. It’s the finest beef, with even marbling and a creamy layer of fat. Although Prime Rib is how rib roast is often labeled, it is often USDA Choice beef.
Print Copy of the final edited film.
Priority Point System System of assigning points to exhibiting companies to determine which firms will be allowed to select booth/stand space for the next event first. Also Called PRIORITY RATING SYSTEM.
Priority Rating System System of assigning points to exhibiting companies to determine which firms will be allowed to select booth/stand space for the next event first. Also Called PRIORITY POINT SYSTEM.
Prismatic Glass Material that is textured with a multitude of tiny facets that refract and diffuse light.
Prismatic Plastic Material that is textured with a multitude of tiny facets that refract and diffuse light.
Privatization Retaining a private company to handle a responsibility formerly handled by the city or state administration, e.g., operating a convention center.
Pro Forma Financial forms (invoices, profit and loss statements, balance sheets, etc.) based on future expectations; provided or made in advance to describe items or projections.
Pro Forma Invoice 1) An invoice provided by a supplier prior to the shipment of merchandise, informing the buyer of the kinds and quantities of goods to be sent, their value, and important specifications (weight, size, etc.) 2) A packing list on which a shipper describes what is being shipped including the quantity, the value, the weight, and dimensions.
Pro Number Shipment number designated by the common carrier to a single shipment, used in all cases where the shipment must be referred to.
Problem Orientation Adult learner’s tendency to seek in order to solve a problem or fulfill a need.
Proceedings Published volume transcribing the full conference sessions, which may or may not include details of the discussion.
Procession Group of individuals moving in an orderly, often ceremonial manner.
Producer Person or company responsible for the production of something; usually used in reference to a theatrical producer, event producer or an exhibit producer. See Also Organizer
Product Products are items, which compliment the speaker’s topic and are available for sale. A speaker’s books, audio cassette albums, video tapes, workbooks, posters, and other products may be sold by contract in large quantity to a client in advance for all attendees, or sold at the back of the room at an autograph table.
Production Company A company that presents special effects and theatrical acts. This type of company may contract to put on an entire event or only parts of one. They sometimes hire speakers as part of their contract.
Productivity Tickets Complimentary tickets awarded by the official airline after the event according to the number of attendees who used the airline.
Professional Relating to organizations whose membership hold common occupational credentials or interests.
Professional Association Group of persons who practice a particular professional activity.
Professional Congress Organizer PCO A type of company, often in Europe that is comparable to a DESTINATION MANAGEMENT COMPANY (DMC) in the U.S. Local supplier who can arrange, manage and/or plan any function or service for an event.. See Also Destination Management Company, Ground Operator
Professional Organizations An industry organization that fosters education and networking opportunities for its members.
Professional Speaker A speaker who is paid a fee for performances and makes a living from presenting information to various organizations.
Profile Detailed information about a traveler and/or company kept on file by a travel management company.
Profile of Attendees Data concerning attendees, including their average age, spending habits, etc. A profile of event participants.
Program Schedule of events, giving details of times and places.
Program Book Printed schedule of events, location of function rooms, and other pertinent information.
Program Design Structure of event program elements to achieve specific goals and objectives.
Program Development Planning that takes place before an event regarding its specific content and fabric.
Program Exclusivity When a speaker limits the speakers bureau/agency to offering certain programs that the speaker presents.
Prohibited Cargo Goods restricted by international convention. Also refers to drugs, weapons and ammunitions.
Projection Booth Platform or area from which audiovisual presentations are controlled.
Projection Distance Measurement from the projector to the screen.
Projection Rehearsal Room See Also Try Out Room
Projection Room Area at back or above auditorium for projection.
Projection Screen Surface on which images are displayed.
Projector An apparatus for projecting a picture on a screen. Whether the device is an overhead projector, data (LCD) projector, slide projector, or a film projector, it is usually referred to as simply a projector. See Also LCD
Promoter Person or organization whose role is to market an event, maximizing media coverage and income.
Promotion 1) Publicizing an event. See PUBLICITY. 2) An advancement in rank or position. See Also Publicity
Promotional Fare Fare below regular rates.
Promotional Fares Reduced fares for travel to particular cities. The number of seats sold at the reduced fare is limited and, therefore, early booking is critical. These tickets also carry many restrictions.
Pro-Number Shipment number designated by the common carrier to a single shipment, used in all cases where the shipment must be referred. Usually assigned at once.
Proof 1) Final copy for approval before printing. See BLUELINE. 2) To correct before final printing. 3) Standard measure of alcoholic strength; e.g., 100 proof = 20% percent alcohol content. See Also Blueline
Proof of Citizenship A document, necessary for obtaining a passport, that establishes ones’ nationality to the satisfaction of a foreign government.
Proofing Checking preliminary printed materials for errors before the final printing.
Property 1) Establishment such as a hotel, motel, inn, resort, conference center, or event facility. 2) Something (e.g. an interest, money, or land) that is owned or possessed.
Proposal 1) Plan put forth for consideration or acceptance. 2) Communication sent by a supplier to a potential customer detailing the supplier’s offerings and prices.
Props Stage furniture, set dressing, and all articles used by actors or entertainers.
Proscenium Arch that separates a stage from the auditorium.
Proscenium Arch The visible opening that frames a stage (usually theatrical.)
Prospect A potential attendee, guest, buyer or exhibitor.
Prospectus The document (printed or online) that promotes the chief features and benefits of a product or service to prospects.
Protection Reservation on an alternate flight.
Protocol 1) Customs and regulations dealing with diplomatic formality, precedence, and etiquette. 2) A formal description of message formats and the rules two computers must follow to exchange messages.
Provision Detailed section of a contract.
Provisional Program Generally a second mailing including information on program structure and key speakers, giving details of the ancillary conference activities and normally containing the conference registration forms. See Also Preliminary Program
Provisional Registration See Also Pending Registration
PSI Pounds per Square Inch. A measurement of pressure. Pressure is force per unit area. The standard unit for pressure outside of the United States is the Pascal (which is one Newton per square meter), which is the unit of pressure or stress in the International System of Units (SI). See Also Pascal
PSM/PSS Passenger Service Manager/ Supervisor.
Psychological Learning Environment Elements of the emotional atmosphere of an event room.
Public Accommodation A private entity that owns, rents or leases a public facility.
Public Address System Audio and/or visual system to convey messages to participants during an event. See Also PA System
Public Relations Presentation of an event via the media or other outlets, stressing the benefits and desirability of such event.
Public Relations Officer Title given to the person in charge of coordinating the promotional activities of an event.
Public Seminar A seminar that is open to the public. Tickets are sold to individuals.
Public Show Exhibition that is open to the public, usually requiring an entrance fee. See Also Exhibition, Gate Show, Consumer Show, Trade Show
Public Space Space in a facility that is available for use by anyone willing to pay the rental fee.
Public Speaker Someone who speaks in public. Often, a public speaker is not paid for his or her appearances and delivers a political speech or a speech that promotes a particular cause, company, or organization.
Publications Printed items, such as books, magazines, newspapers and conference documentation.
Publicity A media campaign, normally consisting of a series of public notices and advertising activities, aimed at ensuring maximum attendance by focusing attention on an event. See Also Promotion
Publicity Materials Brochures or other items needed for promotional purposes.
Purchasing Agent An agent who purchases goods on behalf of a company or agency.
Pylon A tall exhibit structure normally used for identification.
Pyrotechnics Fireworks display.
Q&A Question-and-answer period after a speaker or presentation at a meeting.
Quad Box Four electrical outlets in one box, which should be grounded.
Quad Room Room with at least two beds occupied by four persons.
Quad/Quadruple 1) Four-channel audio tape recording system. 2) Room with two or more beds for four persons.
Qualifying The act of determining a person’s authority or financial ability to purchase a product or service or perform a specific function.
Qualitative Data Descriptive information that is a record of what is observed, presented in narrative by the respondent. Also referred to as “soft data.”
Quality Profits Profits that can be sustained year to year over a prolonged period of time.
Quantitative Data Information that is represented numerically so you can assign ranks or scores, or determine averages and frequencies. Also Called HARD DATA
Quart Unit of measure equal to l/4 gallon or 32 ounces. (Approx. liter size).
Quarter-Round Wedge shaped table with one rounded edge.
Quartz Lamp Type of high intensity projection lamp.
Queen-Size Bed Large bed usually measuring 60-by-80 inches (120%-by- 200 centimeters).
Quesadilla Filled tortilla.
Questionnaire Survey; a set of questions used to gather information.
Quiche Savory custard pie.
Quick Set Function room set-up that saves room turnover time, limits the number of event rooms required, and avoids additional charges for changing room set-ups.
Quick-Change Booth Enclosed or draped area, close to the stage, for costume changes.
Quota 1) The quantity of goods of a specific kind that a country will permit to be imported without restriction or imposition of additional duties. 2) A part of a budget which a salesperson must book.
Quotation/Quote An offer to sell goods or services at a stated price and under specified conditions.
R&B Rhythm-and-Blues style of music.
Rabbet A saw cut used in the fabrication of wood parts.
Raceway An enclosed channel of metal or non-metallic materials designed expressly for holding wires or cables.
Rack Rate Facility’s standard, pre-established guest room rates.
Radio System System for message transmission by radio.
Radius Mark Internal and external marks left on acrylic after improper or inadequate bending.
Ragoût Stew with rich gravy.
Rail Low drape divider between exhibit booths/stands.
Rain Date An alternate event date contracted to use in case of rain.
Raised Letters Lettering cut out of any material and applied or mounted to a surface or background for dimensional effects.
Rally Gathering to promote enthusiasm and excitement.
RAM Random Access Memory. The most common type of computer memory, in which the computer stores system software, programs, and data currently being used.
Ramekin Glazed earthenware dish used for both baking and serving.
Ramp Session Session added on to the end of the day’s program, usually after dinner, to accommodate extra papers or an extra papers of an extra plenary lecture.
Random Access Ability to retrieve, in any sequence, visual and taped elements regardless of original placement order.
Random Noise Noise consisting of random-frequencies with random time and amplitude characteristics. See Also Noise
Random Sample A sample in which the probability of selection for each element in the population is known prior to the sample selection.
Rank and File The membership of a union or organization, other than officers and officials.
Rap Sessions Informal sessions with no specific agenda.
Rapporteur Person appointed to note and record the proceedings of sessions and to write summaries of the paper presented for a final summation session. Also Reporter
Rate of Exchange The rate of currency exchange established daily as the buying rate of foreign currency by the Federal Reserve Bank. The daily rate is used only when it varies by more than 5 per cent from the quarterly rate. When applicable, the daily rate is the rate certified on the day of exportation.
Ravioli Italian pasta ‘pillows’ stuffed with meat, cheese and/or vegetables. Served with a sauce, usually tomato based.
Raw Film Condition of motion picture film after printing process but before surface has been treated.
RCMA Religious Conference Management Association. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Reactance Electrical characteristic of inductors and of capacitors, opposing the flow of A.C. electricity. Reactance is measured in ohms and may be negative producing what is called an “imaginary” part of an impedance. Loudspeakers, for example, can be highly reactive and, under certain circumstances with certain signals, can feed 20% amperes or more back into the power amplifier driving them.
Reader Board At a facility, a listing, either printed or on a video screen, of the day’s events including times and locations. See Also Directory, Function Board
Ready Room Area set aside for speakers to meet, relax, test AV, or prepare prior to or between speeches. See Also Try Out Room
Readymen Nonunion, temporary labor hired from a personnel agency.
Real Time Analyzer Device used in acoustic studies to analyze sound energies in a room as they occur and print them out for later study.
Real Time Captioning Words displayed on a terminal while the speech is occurring.
Real-Time When online activities take place at a designated time, they are referred to as real-time events. A Webcast of a keynote presenter that can be watched live over the Internet is an example of a real-time event.
Rear Illuminated Technique of lighting color transparency or adlux from rear.
Rear Projection Movie, slide, or computer image presentation where the screen is between the viewer and the projector. Often used in terms of a FRONT PROJECTION SCREEN which is translucent to images being projected from the rear and can be viewed from the front.
Rear-Lit Method of lighting transparency from behind.
Reasonable Accommodation Any provision that aids the participation of a person with a disability, as long as it does not create a hazard to others, a major disruption in business or an undue financial or administrative burden.
Rebate A return of part of a payment.
Recall Requiring employee to return to work after he or she has left for the day (or night).
Receipt Official acknowledgement of receipt of registration and fees.
Receiver Apparatus that converts electric currents or waves into visible or audible signals.
Receiving Fee Arbitrary fees sometimes imposed by a host government to officially recognize an event.
Receiving Line Dignitaries, host, sponsor, and guest of honor lined up to greet guests.
Reception Stand-up social function where beverages and light foods are served. Foods may be presented on small buffet tables or passed by servers. May precede a meal function.
Reception Agency An agency that specializes in services for incoming visitors. See Also Inbound Tour Operator, Receptive Operator
Reception Desk/Registration Desk Process by which an individual indicates and confirms his intent to attend an event. Registration for an event can occur in advance of the event beginning, or on-site when the event has begun.
Receptive Operator A tour operator or travel agent who specializes in services for incoming visitors. Same as INBOUND TOUR OPERATOR. See Also Inbound Tour
Recession 1) Withdrawing procession. 2) Economic downturn.
Rechauffé Reheated; warmed over.
Recommendation Strongly suggested course of action; sometimes has binding force.
Record Locator An identifying number for the PNR in a file or record. See Also PNR
Red Eye Flight A scheduled flight that departs late at night and arrives in the morning.
Reduction The base from which the flavor of a sauce is derived. The volume of liquid in the saucepan diminishes as the liquid evaporates, thereby concentrating the flavor.
Referral When someone, particularly a satisfied client, suggests or recommends services to other buyers.
Referral Child Care When an event host organization publishes a list of child care service providers available. Attendees then make their own arrangements with these services.
Reflection Sound or light energy which returns from a surface when struck. The amount and angle of reflection depends on the type and size of the reflecting surface and the frequency (wavelength) of the energy.
Refraction The change of direction of a light ray passing from one medium to another of different density.
Refresh To clean function space after specific functions, or during break periods. Usually involves refilling water pitchers, removing soiled articles, changing glassware, and performing other light housekeeping chores.
Refreshment Break Time between meeting sessions. May include coffee, soft drinks, and/or food items. Some are planned around a theme.
Refreshments Items of food and drink consumed between main meals; usually taken during breaks between meetings. See Also Break, Coffee Break
Refund Money repaid; can be in the form of cash or credit voucher.
Refund Policies Rules and regulations which determine allowable reasons and timelines under which fees for a meeting or event will be refunded in whole or in part.
Refundable Deposit A deposit made by the destination management company (DMC) to a venue that may be returned to the DMC under certain conditions agreed to by the venue.
Refurbish To update, repair damage, renew surfaces and replace graphics as necessary to recondition an exhibit or a facility, to extend its life-span.
Reg Area Registration area.
Reg Desk Registration desk.
Regional Event An event targeted to attendees from a specific geographical area. May be a stand-alone event, or a regional version of a national event. Typically 60% of attendees reside within a 400 mile (640 km) radius of the event city. See Also National Event, State/Province Event, Local Event
Regional Exclusivity A speakers bureau’s/agency’s exclusivity is limited to a particular region or territory.
Regional Security RSO Consular official charged with the security of his Officer country’s nationals while traveling in his region.
Registrant Individual who has submitted a registration form and attends an event.
Registrar Individual responsible for handling registrations.
Registration 1) Process by which an individual indicates his intent to attend a conference or stay at a property. 2) A method of booking and payment. 3) The process of recording data about an attendee (or exhibitor), sending a confirmation and creating a badge used on-site.
Registration Area Designated area where event registration takes place.
Registration Card Signature form used by facility when registering a guest.
Registration Data Information about an attendee that is gathered as part of the registration process (occupation, fee category, etc).
Registration Fee Amount payable for attendance at a conference; may vary according to level of participation or type of membership.
Registration Form Form used by an event attendee to sign up to attend an event. It is used to collect important information about the attendee and his intended participation in the event.
Registration Kit Packet of materials for an event, such as a program or agenda, special tickets, maps, etc. See Also Conference Pack/Kit
Registration Packet See Also Registration Kit
Rehearsal Practicing a presentation.
Reimbursement Policy Statement of procedures that speakers and personnel must follow in order to have their expenses reimbursed.
Reinforced Vinyl Covered cord, wall coverings, or upholstery materials. Vinyl laminated with fabric. Generally used for banners.
Reissue/Exchange To write a new ticket to accommodate changes.
Relay Electrical device used to interrupt or sustain flow of current. Commonly used in low-voltage systems for programmed effects.
Relay Interpreting Oral translation whereby an interpreter does not translate directly, but interprets the translation of a colleague, usually because he is not qualified to work directly from the original language.
Release 1) Signed form giving permission to use a person’s name, picture, or statement (often in an advertisement). 2) Form signed by presenter allowing recording of presentation. 3) To release space, as in returning unsold air reservations, cruise cabins, or hotel rooms to the supplier that originally allotted them. 4) Document provided by management to permit removal of goods from exhibition during event hours.
Release Date Date beyond which a facility is free to rent the unused sleeping rooms or function space to other groups.
Released Value Stated value of a shipment when released to the carrier. If shipper declares a higher value than the per-pound limit, shipping costs will increase.
Released Value Limit of carrier’s liability.
Religious Meetings An event for attendees to discuss non-secular subjects.
Remote Ballast Removal of ballast from fluorescent fixtures to a separate or remote location, to allow for extremely limited space.
Remote Control Control of apparatus, such as audiovisual equipment, from a distance.
Rental Booth/Stand Complete booth/stand package offered to exhibitors on a rental basis.
Rental Charges Cost of hiring a piece of equipment or function space for a specified period of time.
Rental Contract Contract stating terms and conditions for rental of exhibition venue or for individual booth/stand within a venue.
Repeat Engagement/Booking When a speaker does a second or subsequent booking for the same client.
Reporter Person appointed to note and record the proceedings of sessions and to write summaries of the paper presented for a final summation session.
Reporting Pay Guaranteed payment to employees who report or show up ready for work at their usual time and find no work to do. See Also Call Pay
Reprise Repetition of musical theme.
Request for Proposals RFP A document that stipulates what services the organization wants from an outside contractor and requests a bid to perform such services. See Also Bid Manual/Specifications
Request Status May apply to seats, meals and reservations when they have been requested but not confirmed.
Reroute To change a passenger’s itinerary after they have begun their travel.
Reservation An arrangement to have a sleeping room (at a hotel or other housing facility) held for one’s use. Process by which an individual or group secures space at a facility.
Reservation Center Telephone reservation sales office.
Reservation Form See Also Housing Form
Reservation Method Manner by which sleeping room reservations are to be made for attendees of a specific event (i.e., individually, via master list, etc.).
Reservation Request A communication by which a guest indicates sleeping room requirements; these are forwarded to the hotel to secure a reservation.
Reservation Review Date Designated day when the facility will release a block of sleeping rooms to the general public. See Also Cut-Off Date
Resistance Extent to which an electrical conductor impedes a flow of current.
Resistor Electrical component made to resist current flow.
Resolution 1) Ability of a projection system to distinguish and reproduce fine detail. 2) Motion put forward for a joint decision; usually has the force of a legislative decision.
Resonance Natural vibration or oscillation of mechanical or electrical systems at specific frequencies that depend on qualities such as mass and springiness (mechanical systems) or capacitance and inductance (electrical systems) in response to an outside source.
Resort Regions associated with recreation and leisure, such as the mountains, seashore, or natural or man-made attractions. A resort hotel or motel offers or is located near facilities for sports and recreational activities such as tennis, swimming, sailing, etc.
Resort Casual Attire for warm destinations, including mid- to kneelength shorts; collarless or golf shirts; khakis and sandals. Women can wear linen sheaths, casual skirts or sundresses.
Resort Conference Center A conference facility with at least one major amenity.
Resource Manual Packet of handouts from all sessions that will occur during the event.
Resource Workbook Usually a loose-leaf binder in which additions and deletions are made as the program develops.
Restricted Dialing The ability to control telephone access often by excluding specific country or area codes and certain types of calls. This is often put in place for event rooms and show floor locations. Directions on whether or not restricted dialing should be established from a specific location during an event should be indicated on Function Orders associated with that location and be included in the event’s specifications guide. See Also Long Distance Dialing
Resume See Also Specifications Guide
Retailer Middlemen such as travel agents who sell directly to the consumer.
Retained Earnings Profits retained by the enterprise rather than disbursing to the shareholders. Retained earnings are used to improve the value of the enterprise through development and/or promotional programs.
Retention Rate 1) The percentage of exhibitors or attendees that return to an event from one year to the next. 2) The percentage of an organization’s membership or company’s employees that remain with the organization or company from one year to another.
Return Panel joined to back wall at right angles.
Return on Investment ROI Net Profit divided by Net Worth. A financial ratio indicating the degree of profitability.
Reunion Tour See Also Alumni Tour
Revalidation The authorized stamping or writing upon a flight coupon to show it has been officially altered by the carrier. Tickets can only be revalidated for those flights that reflect the same fare, city pair and advanced purchase requirement.
Revenue Management System A sophisticated computer based pricing system that vendors use to adjust prices based on anticipated demand. See Also Yield Management
Reverberation Sound which appears to echo and re-echo in weaker and weaker levels. Also Called REVERB.
Reverse Reversed or negative form of original art or type.
Reviewing Stands Elevated platforms accommodating not more than 20% persons. Seating facilities, if provided, are normally in the nature of loose chairs. Reviewing stands accommodating more than 20% persons shall be regulated as grandstands.
Revision List Summarized list of changes and updates to be made to a function sheet.
RevPAR Revenue Per Available Room. A performance measurement commonly used in the hotel industry. It is calculated by dividing a hotel’s net rooms revenue by the total number of available rooms, or by multiplying a hotel’s average daily room rate (ADR) by its occupancy.
RFP See Also Request for Proposals
RFP Distribution Date The date a Request for Proposals (RFP) is to be passed along if an event organizer is using an intermediary to distribute the RFP [i.e., If an event organizer sends an RFP to a Convention & Visitors Bureau (CVB), and wants the CVB to send the RFP to member hotels on a certain date, that date is the RFP Distribution Date.]. See Also RFP Published Date
RFP Published Date The date a Request for Proposals (RFP) is released from an event organizer and is made public. See Also RFP Distribution Date
Rheostat Dimmer, usually on lighting controls. See Also Dimmer
Rib A framing member, usually termed in circular forms.
Rider An additional clause in artist’s contract stipulating special requirements such as travel, dressing rooms, technical equipment, etc.
Rigger 1) Person responsible for machinery uncrating, unskidding, positioning, leveling, and reskidding. 2) Skilled labor responsible for attaching signs, banners, truss, and other equipment to ceilings.
Rigging 1) The process of attaching the cable on a crane to a piece of machinery or equipment. 2) The process for hanging materials or signs.
Right of First Refusal A courtesy a facility extends to a previously booked party to approve or disapprove a concurrent booking or to save uncontracted space for the previously booked party for program growth.
Right to Work State Where joining a union is not a condition of employment.
Rights Only Selling only the rights to a sponsorship, with the buyer incurring expenses for production, installation and dismantle.
Rim Drive A turntable operated from its edge rather than the center for heavier or off-center loads.
Riser Raised platform. See Also Dais, Podium, Cyclorama
Risk Management Recognizing the possibility of injury, damage or loss, and having a means to prevent it or provide insurance.
Risk Monies Funds that an agency would not recoup should a tour not materialize, i.e., nonrefundable deposits to suppliers, promotional expenditures, printing expenses.
RMS Value for watts in complex signals, such as music, derived by dividing voltage by the load impedance to describe the amount of energy.
ROH See Also Run-of-the-House
ROI Return on Investment. Net Profit divided by Net Worth. A financial ratio indicating the degree of profitability.
Roll-a-Way Portable bed that can be provided for extra persons.
Roll-In Foods and/or beverages preset on rolling tables and then moved into function room at designated time.
Rolling Cart Portable cart on which audiovisual equipment can be placed.
Romaine Lettuce with dark green leaves and a nutty flavor, used for Caesar Salad.
Roman Candles A long paper tube packed with round stars and black powder; when lit stars shoot out every four seconds to a height of about 75 feet.
ROO Return on Objectives. Measurement of benefit an exhibiting company receives for participation at an exhibition by company pre-set objectives to show success.
Room 1) A chamber used for sleeping. 2) A place where an assembly meets.
Room Block Total number of sleeping rooms that are utilized and attributable to one event. See Also Block
Room Capacity Number of people that can function safely and comfortably in a room.
Room Commitment Rooms to be held open each night of the event, specified by room type (single, double, etc).
Room Deposit Money that must be paid in advance in order for a hotel to guarantee to hold a room.
Room Nights Number of rooms blocked or occupied multiplied by number of nights each room is reserved or occupied.
Room Occupancy Pattern Number of single and double rooms used.
Room Only A type of rate that consists of the price of the room only. Commonly abbreviated as EP.
Room Pick Up The number of sleeping rooms actually used by event attendees and exhibitors.
Room Rate The amount charged for the occupancy of a room.
Room Service Facility department which provides food and beverage service to guest rooms.
Room Set-Up The physical arrangement of a room including the layout of tables, chairs, other furniture, and equipment.
Room Tax See Also Transient Occupancy Tax
Room Turnover Amount of time needed to tear down and reset a function room.
Room-Based Videoconferencing Land-based system for videoconferencing designed to manage communication between one group of people, usually in a conference room setting, with another group or groups in similar settings elsewhere.
Rooming List A list, whether printed or electronic, by which an event organizer and/or their designates (e.g. a housing bureau) delivers multiple reservations to a hotel or other housing facility. Often the information contained in a rooming list is originally gathered through attendees’ completed Housing Forms. See Also Housing Form
Root Mean Squared See Also RMS
Rope and Pulley Screen Large format screen which is rolled around a tubular core around which ropes are wound in such a way as to roll and unroll the screen by operating the ropes.
Rope Lights A string of small, low-voltage lights inside a clear or colored transparent plastic tube run by a controller. See Also Tube Lights
Roping Plush-covered chain used to define traffic areas. Can be attached to a stanchion.
Rostrum Raised platform where a speaker stands when delivering his or her remarks. See Also Podium, Lectern
Rôti( row tee) Roast.
Rôtisserie Roasted on a spit.
Rough Layout Quick drawing giving indications of proposed exhibit.
Roulade Rolled, as in meat.
Round Banquet table, usually 60 inches (152 centimeters) in diameter. Also available in 66- and 72-inch (168- and 183 centimeter) diameters. A “Round for 8” is a banquet table at which 8 place settings should be set. Another common configuration is a “Round for 10.” Commonly, a 60-inch (152 cm) round is used to seat 8, a 66-inch (168 cm) round seats 9, and a 72-inch (183 cm) round seats 10.
Round Robin Contest or tournament in which each participant is matched with every other participant.
Round Slide Tray See Also Carousel Tray
Round Trip Travel from origin to destination and return to origin via the same cities.
Rounded Hollow Square A hollow square whose corners are replaced by serpentine or half-moon tables.
Roundtable A group of experts who meet on an equal basis to review and discuss specialized, professional matters, either in closed session or, more frequently, before an audience.
Route Manager The person responsible for managing motor coach flow, routes, drivers, etc.
Roux Mixture of butter and flour used to thicken sauces and soups.
Row Booth/Stand The booth/stand within a row of similar booths/stands with the front opening onto an aisle and with other booths/stands on either side.
RP See Also Rear Projection
RP Screen See Also Rear Projection
RTI Room, Tax and Incidentals. An abbreviation often used in reference to charges at an hotel, motel, inn, bed and breakfast, etc.
Rules and Regulations The requirements and procedures prepared by event management for attendees, contractors and exhibitors for a given event. See Also Exhibitor Manual
Rump Session The session added on the end of the day to accommodate an extra plenary lecture, usually after dinner.
Run The number of copies printed.
Runner 1) Long narrow carpet in a hallway, aisle, or on stage. 2) Piece of portable or constructed staging that extends a main stage to form a runway. 3) Main cord extending from a microphone to an amplifier.
Running Order Subjects to be discussed at a meeting. See Also Agenda, Schedule
Run-of-the-House 1) Rooms given at random according to availability when the reservations are made. 2) Flat rate for which a hotel or motel agrees to offer any of its available rooms (with the exception of suites) to a group. Final assignment of rooms is at the discretion of the hotel. See Also Flat Rate
Run-Through A complete rehearsal including all elements of the event production, such as presentations, performances, music or entertainment, lighting, audio-visual and technical aspects.
Runway Platform which extends from a stage into the audience area, often used for events such as fashion shows. See Also Catwalk
Russian Service 1) Banquet Russian: The food is fully prepared in the kitchen. All courses are served either from platters or an escoffier dish. Tureens are used for soup and special bowls for salad. The server places the proper plate in front of the guest. After the plates are placed, the server returns with a tray of food and, moving counter-clockwise around the table, serves the food from the guest’s left with the right hand. With this style of service, the server controls the amount served to each guest. 2) Restaurant Russian: Foods are cooked at tableside. Servers put them on platters and present platters to guests seated at dining tables. Guests serve themselves. See Also Butler Service
Sabre One of the four major Computerized Reservation Systems (CRS) or Global Distribution Systems (GDS).
Saddle Screen Projection screen whose surface is pulled up out of a container and supported by a metal rod from the back.
Saddle-Stitch Binding Binding process using wire staples.
Safe Lock Stand Stand with four adjustable telescoping legs designed to hold audio visual equipment.
Safety Shot A shot taken by a camera at a multi-camera set-up when that camera is not in use, but powered up. Any camera not in use should be left on a safety shot until it is powered down. Safety shots make for good back-ups.
SAG Screen Actors Guild. A union for actors working in filmed entertainment. The professional union representing actors and actresses.
Salami A type of dry cured sausage.
Sales All activities involved with convincing someone to purchase a product or service.
Sales Blitz Intense selling effort in a particular locality; cold calling to qualify leads. Usually performed by a group of people from one organization who may or many not all be in a sales capacity.
Sales Coordinator/ Manager/Representative Hotel staff person responsible for assisting salesperson in selling sleeping rooms and function space. Usually reports to Director of Sales (DOS).
Sales Force/Sales Team A group of employees responsible for personally developing prospects and sales.
Sales Incentive A reward in excess of salary or commission provided to a salesperson in return for achieving a stated sales goal.
Sales Leads Names and contact information of potential customers. Attendee lists are often provided as sales leads to exhibitors as an incentive to participate in an exhibition.
Sales Meeting Event to introduce new products and their applications or to motivate sales staff.
Sales Portfolio A manual of information carried by a salesperson for reference or display.
Sales Promotions Special events whose objectives are to increase sales and customers.
Salute A fireworks shell with an aluminum mixture that produces a loud bang or noise.
Sample Any portion of the population selected for a study.
Sample Room Room with or without sleeping facilities, for displaying merchandise.
Sampling 1) A research method based upon selecting a portion of a population for study. 2) Paperwork and fees paid to a building by exhibitors for the right to serve food product.
Sanctioned Area A closed section of a street or area that is only accessible to authorized individuals and not to the open public.
Sand Blasting Technique of etching smooth surface of glass, plastic or metal to achieve matte or textured quality.
Sandwich Board Two boards held together with hinges that form a tent-like structure for signs. See TENT BOARD.
Sandwiching Mounting of transparent subject matter between one translucent and one clear plastic panel.
Sans Arête Boneless.
Sans Peau Skinless.
Sans Serif Typefaces without cross-strokes at top and bottom of letters.
Sashimi High quality raw fish served in Japanese restaurants, presented artistically.
Sateen Fabric used in special draping or bunting.
Satellite Meeting See Also In Conjunction With
Satin Finish Smooth semi-gloss finish, usually a metal or lacquered surface.
Satire A form of comedy in which sharp derision is aimed at an idea or individual.
Sauerbraten Beef cooked with vinegar and onions, served with a brown gravy.
Sauerkraut Cooked cabbage, shredded and pickled.
Sauté Fry lightly in a little fat
SC&S Strapped, Corded, and Sealed.
Scab Employee who continues to work in a company during a strike or who accepts employment at a company in which a strike is going on. Also, an employee who takes a job in a non-union shop or under non-union conditions when the union is trying to organize the industry.
Scale Model Any model articulating all components of original object, but in smaller size.
Scallions Young, small green onions
Scattered Arrivals A pattern of group arrivals that are separate from the main arrivals.
Scenario Outline of an event or a speech highlighting relevant items, sometimes showing different types of outcome.
Scene 1) Setting of an action. 2) Division of an act or play.
Scene in Action Term for mechanical animation technique that achieves simulated flow motion by rotating striped cylindrical acetate drum between light source and face art work.
Schedule Table of time and location for all functions related to an event. This information should be included in the specifications guide for an event.
Schedule of Services Pre-program information distributed to tour guides, field representatives, venues or vendors, regarding the details of their program assignment for a given event or program.
Schematic Model A diagram of an object in model form.
Schoolroom Perpendicular Set-Up Variation of schoolroom set-up in which tables are perpendicular to the head table, and chairs are placed on both sides of the tables. See Also Union Set-Up
Schoolroom Set-Up See Also Classroom Set-Up
Schoolroom V Set-Up Seating arrangement where rows of tables and/or chairs are slanted in a V-shape facing a head table, stage or speaker. See Also Chevron Set-Up
Scientific Committee A group of people meeting specifically to discuss, supervise and coordinate the content of the program dealing with the study of a body of systematic knowledge of the material world and who, where appropriate, would select papers from submitted abstracts.
Scientific Meeting An event with attendees who are involved in research or applied sciences or are suppliers to them.
Scientific Program The content of a SCIENTIFIC MEETING described in chronological order and generally including the full list of speakers and the titles of their papers. See Also Scientific Meeting
Scioptican Device used to create moving effects such as clouds, flames, waves, etc.
Scissor Lift When designed as a personnel lift, a mobile machine that extends vertically on a scissor-like mechanism to several times its height with no increase in the size of its footprint. It is often outfitted with a platform large enough for multiple workers and is best used on a stable, flat surface. It is used for placing lights, decorations, etc. See Also Cherry Picker, Man Lift, JLG, High Jacker, Genie Lift, HI LOW, Forklift/Forktruck
SCMP Society of Corporate Meeting Professionals. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Sconce Ornamental wall bracket for candles or other lights.
Scoop Large theatrical floodlight usually used for work lights or occasionally in place of strip lights to light a cyclorama or sky drop.
Scooter Electrical cart used for driving around show floor.
Score Sheet music provided to musicians.
Screen 1) Projection Screen. 2) Divider, movable wall, partition. 3) Cull out items or applicants, reducing the pool to the top few. 4) Qualify attendees.
Screen Enamel For silkscreen printing on nonporous surfaces.
Screen Left and Right Directions given from audience perspective. See Also Audience Left and Right, Camera Left and Right
Screen/Audience Distance Distance between the projection screen and the front row of the audience. Rear most audience member should be no more than 6 or 7 times the width of the screen in use.
Screening 1) Legal reference checks using professional or police security checks to provide background information. 2) To review a film before it is released for the public to experience.
Scrim 1) Translucent material used to diffuse or soften light. 2) Gauze-like theatrical curtains.
Script The written text of a program, speech, stage play, movie screenplay, or radio or television broadcast, including the words to be spoken and often technical directions.
Scroll 1) Copy or graphics which move slowly up the screen. 2) Rolled parchment document. 3) Moving down on a computer screen.
Sealing Technique of applying sealer coat to porous woods prior to painting procedure. Prevents absorption of final paint finish.
Season Period of time when the demand for a certain supplier’s product or service is high, low, or neither. For example, winter in Florida is high season, while summer is low season. See Also High Season, Low Season, Shoulder Season
Seating Plan Plan or other document showing where individuals should be seated for an event. Particularly applies to a banquet or on a platform at an event. Usually accompanied by an alphabetical listing showing at which tables individuals should be seated.
Second Option Second place on a waiting list. The organization holding the second option for specific dates at a facility, for example, may book those dates only if the organization holding the first option decides not to book within a certain period of time. See Also Option
Second Tier City A city where the space limitations of the convention center, the hotels, or the air lift, make the city more appropriate for smaller meetings and events.
Secondary Airport An airport that is used as an alternative to a city’s primary airport. For instance, Washington, D.C.’s Dulles (IAD) rather than Reagan National (DCA), or Chicago’s Midway (MDW) rather than O’Hare (ORD). Reduced fares are sometimes applicable from these alternate airports.
Secretariat Clerical staff of an organization.
Secretary General Permanent head of the general organization.
Section 20%8 In the United States, the intent of Section 20%8 of the Rehabilitation Act is to eliminate barriers in information technology, to make available new opportunities for people with disabilities, and to encourage development of technologies that will help achieve these goals. The law applies to all Federal agencies when they develop, procure, maintain, or use electronic and information technology. Under Section 20%8, agencies must give disabled employees and members of the public access to information that is comparable to the access available to others.
Secure 1) Act to make safe against adverse contingencies. 2) Lock in space at a facility/venue.
Secure Digital Certificate An encrypted file that authenticates the source of financial data, usually for an online credit card transaction.
Security A system of protecting people or property against crime, attack, or danger. Security is often in place for events to protect exhibits and can include guards, surveillance cameras, etc. See Also Security Cage, Security Contractor, Security Guard, Security Service
Security – Facility Facility personnel responsible for maintaining safety on the premises.
Security – Private Security personnel hired from a privately operated company.
Security Cage Portable wire enclosure used to lock up materials for safe storage. See Also Security
Security Contractor Company hired by exhibit or event management to keep individual exhibits and the entire event floor safe using guards, closed circuit T.V., etc. See Also Security
Security Deposit A deposit made to assure credit usually returned after event if no damages are done.
Security Guard A member of a security service who is employed to protect building, people, and event, etc. See Also Security
Security Lock Protective or security device which connects by a chain a closed and ajar door to doorjamb. Also Called CHAIN LOCK.
Security Service Service providing security arrangements, such as checking delegates credentials, searching hand luggage, protecting equipment and patrolling congress and exhibition areas. See Also Security
Segue (Pronounced seg-guay.) Transition between two audio passages or video segments.
Self-Contained Entertainment act, group, or production that usually can supply its own sound, music, lights, etc.
Self-Contained Exhibit A display which uses the shipping crate as an integral part of the exhibit.
Self-Direction The acceptance and assumption of responsibility for one’s own life; a characteristic of adult learners.
Semantic Differential A type of question format in which the respondent selects a response between two opposite terms.
Semicircular Theater Set-U Seating arrangement where chairs are arranged in a semicircle.
Seminar 1) Lecture and dialogue allowing participants to share experiences in a particular field under the guidance of an expert discussion leader. 2) A meeting or series of meetings of from 10 to 20% specialists who have different specific skills but have a specific common interest and come together for training or learning purposes. The work schedule of a seminar has the specific object of enriching the skills of the participants.
Seminar Leader The teacher or expert who instructs a seminar’s attendees.
Semi-Skilled Labor Persons whose work is limited to a well-defined work routine; or work in which lapses of performance would not cause excessive damage to product or equipment.
Sensitivity 1) For mixers and amplifiers – the amount of input required to drive the circuit to its rates output. 2) For loudspeakers – the amount of electrical output produced by incident sound at a given sound pressure. 3) For microphones – the amount of electrical output produced by incident sound at a given sound pressure.
Sepia Printed reproduction of black and white art tinted brown tones, which imparts an antique look.
Sequence of Events An outline program of events and time of commencement that is tailored to the needs of an event. See Also Agenda , Schedule
Serifs Cross-strokes at top and bottom of letters.
Serpent In pyrotechnics, a short tube packed with a chemical mixture that propels the device with a strong jet flame in a zigzag or circular pattern.
Serpentine Curved, S-shaped tables that when placed together make a snake form.
Serpentine Queue Line formation of people going to the same area; line feeds off into several different service stations.
Service Nonphysical, intangible attributes that management controls (or should), including friendliness, efficiency, attitude, professionalism, responsiveness, etc.
Service Bar A counter from which alcoholic beverages are served that is located outside of a function room, usually in an area not visible to guests.
Service Charge 1) A mandatory and automatic amount added to standard food and beverage charges, usually used to defray the cost of labor, such as housemen, servers, technicians, etc. and which the facility receives a portion of the charge. In return, the guest is relieved the responsibility for tipping. 2) A fee charged to a client by a travel agent in addition to the commissions paid to him or her by his or her principals. See Also Gratuity
Service Contractor Outside company used by clients to provide specific products or services (e.g. pipe and drape, exhibitor manuals, floorplans, dance floors or flags).
Service Desk Centralized on-site location for ordering or reconfirming services provided by general service contractor and specialty contractors.
Service Kit See Also Exhibitor Manual
Service/Product Mix A business, while involving both service and product, where the quality of the service is often more important than the product received. Examples of this type of service would be: service contractors, catering, etc.
Services and Facilities Amenities Items provided by or available from the organizer to enable the customer, delegate or committee to get maximum benefits from an event, such as the provision of secretarial services, cleaning, power, transportation, catering, etc.
SESAC An organization similar to ASCAP and BMI that licenses the use of copyrighted music for various artists. Session Single uninterrupted part of the meeting program.
Set 1) Performance area including props, equipment, backdrops, etc. 2) Length of time band or orchestra plays between breaks. 3) Make preparations for a predetermined number of attendees. 4) To arrange type for printed materials.
Set Dressing Props arranged to decorate the set. Also Called TRIM PROPS
Set For The actual number of seats put in place (or to be put in place) for a function.
Set Light Light which illuminates background behind the performers.
Set Piece In pyrotechnics, a wooden frame onto which a desired pattern or image is outlined with lances. A traditional Fourth of July set piece is the American Flag. Sets can be very big and beautiful.
Set Plate See Also Base Plate
Set Top Box Solutions STBS. Portable videoconferencing system, usually mounted on a rolling cart or hard-sided case for ease of transport from room to room or across the globe.
Set-Up 1) Way in which a function room is arranged. 2) Erecting displays, installation, or, articles in their assembled condition. 3) Mixers, fruit, and glassware accompanying a liquor order. See Also Floor Plan
Set-Up Drawings The plans from which the exhibit components are assembled.
Set-Up Personnel Exhibit or function room equipment installers.
Set-Up Plan See Also Floor Plan
Set-Up Time The period necessary for the preparation of the conference and exhibition venue before the arrival of delegates and exhibitors.
Sex Box An electrical outlet that will accommodate 6 plugs. Sometimes called Six Box. See Also Dog House
SGMP Society of Government Meeting Professionals. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Shade Grown Coffee that is grown in the traditional manner, with coffee plants interspersed under a canopy of trees. End result: more habitat for birds, less need for chemical inputs.
Shadow Box Five-sided enclosure with face open for display of art or object; a niche.
Shag Type of carpet with a looped pile.
Shallots Plant that looks like garlic and tastes like a mild onion.
Share A guest who rooms with another guest. A roommate.
Shed See Also Amphitheater
Sheetrock Material used in drywall construction composed of gypsum core and paper veneer. Standard measurements are 4′ x 8′, 4′ x 10′ with thicknesses of 3/8-, 1/2-, and 5/8- inch.
Shell In pyrotechnics, a paper container filled with stars or other fireworks ingredients such as comets, hummingbirds, lances, serpents, or whistles, designed to form a pattern or effect when displayed. They are either round or cylindrical, depending on the manufacturer.
Shell Folder Brochure with preprinted illustrations to which varying text can be added.
Shell Scheme European booth/stand system—usually includes raised floor, back and side walls, plus fascia.
Shelves Thin wooden, or metal, boards fixed horizontally on a wall for displaying objects and sales materials.
Sherbet Glasses Short glass container with foot and stem.
Shimmer Curtain Draping made of strips of colored cellophane that catch and reflect the light.
Shiplap Construction technique of joining two materials by notching both and inserting slots into each other.
Shipment Freight tendered to a carrier by one consignor at one place at one time for delivery to one consignee at one place on one bill of lading.
Shipper Third-party hired to that handle the shipping goods to and from an event. Also Called SHIPPING AGENT.
Shipper’s Export Declaration A form required for all shipments by the U.S. Treasury Department and prepared by a shipper, indicating the value, weight, destination, and other basic information about an export shipment.
Shipping Agent Third-party hired to that handle the shipping goods to and from an event. Also Called SHIPPER.
Shipping Case A container for exhibit components suitable for extended reuse, usually with hinged lid and felted interior.
Shipping Crate A container for exhibit components for one use. Usually with screwed or nailed lid.
Shipping Manifest An instrument in writing, signed by the captain of a ship that lists the individual shipments constituting the ship’s cargo.
Shirring the Drape Gathering drape along the roads to even out the folds and give each panel of drape equal spacing.
Shish Kebob Lamb pieces and vegetables cooked on a skewer. See Also a la Broche
Shoehorning Overcrowding.
S-Hook Type of hanging hardware in shape of letter “S” used as hanger for plaques, etc. See Also Sign Hook
Shop Primarily refers to display builder, also refers to contractor’s main office and warehouse.
Shop Steward Person designated by the union within a shop or unit to represent employees.
Shopping Cart Used to sell products through a Web site. An online shopping cart application allows customers to select and then purchase books, tapes and other items.
Shore Excursion Land tours, usually available at ports of call, sold by cruiselines or tour operators to cruise passengers.
Shot Single measurement of liquor, usually an ounce.
Shoulder The beginning and ending days of a room block when fewer rooms are contracted.
Shoulder Season Period when the demand for a supplier’s product or service is neither high nor low. See Also High Season, Low Season
Show 1) Organized performance for entertainment. 2) An exhibition. See Also Exhibition
Show Breaking Time specified for the close of the exhibition and the start of dismantling.
Show Card Material used for signs.
Show Curtain A drop or curtain behind the front curtain which is painted to give atmosphere to the particular play being presented.
Show Daily A newspaper published each day during the run of an event or conference. It includes articles about the exhibits and events and, often, advertising.
Show Directory A listing, with booth/stand numbers, of all the exhibitors in an event and a map showing booth/stand locations.
Show Management The company, group or organization that manages an exhibition. See Also Exhibition Manager
Show Manager See Also Exhibition Manager
Show Office On-site event management office.
Show Organizer See Also Exhibition Manager
Show Photographer Official photographer for exhibition appointed by event organizer.
Show Plate Decorative plate preset at each place setting during formal meals, which is removed before service begins. Compare With SET PLATE, UNDERLINER. See Also Set Plate , Underliner
Show Producer Company or individual who is responsible for all aspects of planning, promoting and producing an event. See Also Exhibition Manager, Show Management
Show Rates Rates established by event management, official service contractors and/or other official service providers, and published in the EXHIBITOR MANUAL. See Also Exhibitor Manual
Show Rules See Also Rules and Regulations
Show Within a Show An event with its own name and focus that takes place within a larger, related event. See Also In Conjunction With
Showcase 1) Glass-enclosed case for articles on display. Also Called DISPLAY CASE. 2) An event to preview/highlight someone or something.
Shrink Wrap 1) Process of wrapping and consolidating exhibit crates, boxes and loose items on a pallet with heat-sealed, transparent plastic wrapping. 2) A plastic film used to wrap pallets of freight for shipping. It is usually clear and must be heated to cause shrinkage and tight fit to the item being wrapped. See Also Stretch Wrap, Pallet Wrap
Shucker General term for glazed or framed enclosure for display of objects. Also Called DISPLAY CASE.
Shutter In laser technology, an attachment that blocks the laser beam, usually from exiting the projector.
Shuttle A vehicle, usually a bus, contracted to transport event attendees between facilities during a certain time period.
Shuttle Service Transportation for participants; usually by coach or van, provided on a continuous basis for a certain time period.
SIC Standard Industrial Classification. A standard numerical code system used by the U.S. Government to classify products and services. See Also Nomenclature of the Customs Cooperation Council, Standard Industrial Classification
Side Chair Armless chair.
Side Fills Speakers on stage right and stage left to project amplified sound to full stage area.
Side Poles The support poles placed around the perimeter of a tent; also known as pin poles.
Side Rail A low divider panel (usually 3′) used to separate an exhibit space from an adjacent area.
Side Walls Detachable canvas or plastic walls used to create the sides of a tent.
Side-Stitch Binding Binding process by which folded sections of book or magazine are placed on top of one another and stitched together from top to bottom.
Sight Acts Performers who must be watched to be appreciated, such as mimes, jugglers, dancers, and acrobats. See Also Incidental Entertainment
Sight Draft A draft which is payable upon presentation to the drawee.
Sightlines The actual or virtual lines in the venue or on paper layout that describe what parts of a set or decorative object are visible from a given audience or guest point of view; used to determine what must be decoratively treated or masked (hidden).
Sightseeing Guide A guide who narrates a tour, while driving a vehicle (usually a bus or van).
Sightseeing Tour An outing to points of interest, often by bus or van.
Sign Informational display used at events. See Also Banner
Sign Cloth Lightweight material, as opposed to canvas, used for banners, signs, and streamers.
Sign Holder Stand for displaying names, directions, warnings, or advertising mounted on metal, paper, or other material.
Sign Hook Piece of S-shaped metal used to hang signs. See Also S-Hook
Sign Service Service which provides signs for exhibition.
Sign Standard Frame on stand to display sign.
Signage All informational and directional signs and placards at an event.
Signaling System A system for communications between the speaker and the projectionist or between the chairman and the speaker.
Signal-to-Noise Ratio Ratio between the video or audio signal and the noise interference accompanying the signal.
Signature Dish Food item a facility is known for specializing in; also known as house specialty.
Signature Item Exclusive product or service for which a company or organization is well known.
Signed Exception Delivery receipt, signed by the carrier, noting a damage or shortage.
Significant Other An individual who serves an important personal role in another’s life; often used to denote the companion of an invited guest at an event when the companion is not a spouse.
Silk Screen A printing stencil used for reproducing one or more times on a variety of materials.
Silver Lenticular Screen Screen finish with a characteristic silver-colored finish which has brighter reflective characteristics than a matte screen but with a wider viewing angle than a beaded screen. See Also Lenticular Screen
Silver Service See Also Russian Service
Simple Random Sample Method of sampling in which each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample.
Simulation Interactive instructional technique in which the learner has an opportunity to practice a new skill in a real life situation.
Simulation Encounter Interactive instructional technique in which an individual simulates certain behavior which can then be examined, studied and discussed by the attendees.
Simultaneous Interpretation Process of translating one language into another while the speaker is speaking. See Also Consecutive Interpretation, Interpretation, Interpretation in Relay, Translation, Whispered Interpretation, Wireless Infrared Interpreting System
Simultaneous Translation Process of translating one language into another while the speaker is speaking. Same As SIMULTANEOUS INTERPRETATION.
Single Sleeping room occupied by one person. The room may have one or more beds in it.
Single Bed Bed measuring 38-by-75 inches (95-by-188 centimeters.). See Also Twin Bed
Single Phase Producing, carrying, or powered by a single alternating current.
Single Room Sleeping room occupied by one person. The room may have one or more beds in it.
Single Supplement An extra charge assessed to a tour purchased for single accommodations.
Single Weight/ Matte Term describing character and finish of photo blowups necessary for mounting to or wrapping around panel.
Sintra PVC Panel, same as Chydex, Chomatex, used in signs and displays.
SISO Society of Independent Show Organizers
SIT Storage In Transit.
SIT Stopping in Transit.
SITC Standard Industrial Trade Classification. A standard numerical code system developed by the United Nations to classify commodities used in international trade.. See Also Nomenclature of the Customs Cooperation Council, Standard Industrial Classification
SITE Society of Incentive Travel Executives. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Site 1) Venue, area, location, property or specific facility to be used for an event. 2) A particular platform or location for loading or unloading at a place. See Also Venue
Site Facilities Those facilities within the perimeter of the organization where the event takes place; in includes the installations and services both in the auditorium and out side.
Site Inspection In-person on-site review and evaluation of a venue or location for an event. See Also Fam Trip
Site Selection Choosing a venue for an event.
Six Box An electrical outlet that will accommodate 6 plugs. Sometimes called Sex Box. See Also Dog House
Six-by-Six Rule Audiovisual guidelines by which no transparency of slide should contain more than six words per line of text and no more than six lines of text.
Sked Airline with published scheduled flights.
Sketch Model A three-dimensional sketch.
Skewing Zigzag pattern on a TV screen due to improper head alignment.
Skid 1) Pallet. 2) Wooden platform used to support machinery or a collection of objects for easier handling. 3) Thick wood blocks attached to crates which allow forklift access for easier handling. 4) Wood runners protecting the exterior of a shipping case.
Skin Drawing Preliminary elevation and plan indicating overall dimensions.
Skins Pieces of burlap, sometimes with a soft underside, used to protect small items.
Skip Departing guest who fails to pay for accommodations or meals.
Skirting Pleated or ruffled draping used around buffet, reception, head tables, and risers or stages to conceal the area underneath. See Also Riser, Dais
Sky Cap Airport porter who handles baggage.
SL&C Shipper’s Load and Count.
SLA Service Level Agreement. Usually an adjunct document to a vendor contract.
Sleeper Leveling strip on which flooring or horizontal panels are fixed.
Sleep-Out When a guest does not sleep in a hotel (or other accommodation) sleeping room the bed, but still pays for the use of that sleeping room.
Slide Photographic transparency on a small plate or film arranged for projection.
Slide Projector Apparatus used for projecting photographic slides onto a screen. It will often have a remote (either wired or wireless) that can be used to advance the slides.
Slider Telescopic pipe.
Sling 1) A pre-made length of cable used for hanging exhibit materials or signs. 2) A pre-made length of cable or a heavy-duty nylon strap used for rigging machinery to cranes or forklifts.
Slippage Reduction in the number of rooms used from the original reserved block.
Slots Designated takeoff and landing times allocated to airlines at airports; the physical space at airports assigned to the airlines.
Small Group Learning Patterns A learning activity that is dependent on the participation of a small group of people.
Smart Board® An interactive presentation white board that interacts with a computer image. Your finger becomes the mouse.
Smart Card A plastic credit card with an embedded integrated circuit chip that can store up to 16,000 bits of data for lead retrieval and other functions.
Smart Form A Web-based form that can be designed to guide the user through the process of completing the form and can alert the user to errors.
SMERF Meetings acronym for a category of meeting market segments including Social, Military, Educational, Religious and Fraternal groups.
Smoke Generation The creation of fog using chemicals and heat.
Smoker An ashtray on a stand.
Smoking Room A designated area where smoking is allowed.
Smorgasbord Swedish buffet of hors d’ oeuvres, open-faced sandwiches, salads, hot or cold cooked vegetables, pickled or marinated fish, sliced meats, cheeses and desserts. It may be all appetizers or an entire meal.
Snifter A large, short-stemmed goblet used for brandy or cordials.
Social Dinner Non-working evening function at which a meal is served.
Social Event 1) An event with the purpose of facilitating pleasant companionship among attendees, 2) Lifecycle celebration (e.g. a wedding, bar/bat mitzvah, anniversary, birthday, etc.). See Also Social Program
Social Learner A learner who seeks education in order to adapt to an environment.
Social Program Program of organized functions, not directly related to the main subject of an event. See Also Social Event
Social/Cultural Factors Factors related to interaction with other learners that affect the way a person learns.
Society Music Dance music of the 1930s, 1940s, and 1920%s.
Sofa Bed A sofa that opens to make a bed. Also called a HIDE-ABED.
Soffit A lowered portion of a ceiling.
Soft Currency A currency that cannot be traded outside its native country.
Soft Drink Beverage that does not contain alcohol. Soft drinks are most often thought of as carbonated, though it is not a requisite. See Also Neutral Beverage
Soft Opening Time when a property is open for business, prior to the grand opening. All services/facilities may not be complete or available.
Solarized An overexposed photographic print, purposely done for artistic effect.
Sole Relay Interpreter Pivot Interpreter; only interpreter in the team assigned to an event who is able to translate out of a lesser used language and functions as a “relay” for the rest of the team in relation to that language.
Solice The twisting together of two or more electrical wires to provide continuous power.
Solid Surface Material used in display fabrication that is the same all the way through eg. Corion, fountainhead, so it can be sanded and repaired.
Sommelier A wine steward, expected to have an extensive knowledge of wines and their suitability with various dishes.
SOP Standard Operating Procedure (or Practice).
Sorbet A frozen product, similar to sherbet. Designed to be a palate cleanser. Served just prior to the entree. It has a tart flavor, never sweet. It usually has a wine or champagne base.
SOS Schedule of Services. Pre-program information distributed to tour guides, field representatives, venues or vendors, regarding the details of their program assignment for a given event or program.
Soss Hinge Trade name for concealed barrel-shaped hinge installed in recess of cabinet doors and jambs to eliminate revealed hinge.
Souffle Baked, fluffy dessert or main dish of milk, egg yolks, stiffly beaten egg whites, and flavorings.
Sound Audible effects.
Sound Board Console with separate channels to control volume and sound quality produced by each microphone. Sound
Check Verification, often by the performer, that the sound system to be used for the performance is functioning satisfactorily. Usually this one of the final steps of the move-in.
Sound Control Booth Area from which technician operates sound system in a room.
Sound Effects Artificially produced sounds for a theatrical effect.
Sound Mix Procedure of combining independently recorded narration, music and/or sound effect to single master tape or film, while at the same time establishing tone, volume and balance between elements.
Sound Pressure Level Measurement of the actual pressure exerted by a sound, as opposed to a relative comparison like decibel.
Sound Reinforcement Use of electronic and electric equipment to amplify the natural sound produced by a performer or speaker.
Sound System Audio speaker system used to amplify sound.
Sound Wings Risers on stage right and stage left for stacked sound equipment which allows storage space hidden from the audience’s view. See Also Riser
Sound-Proof Wall Barrier that prevents sound from carrying to and from adjacent rooms. Usually a permanent wall.
Soundscape Atmosphere created with the use of music and sound effects.
Source Language Language from which a speech or document is translated.
Sous Vide French for under vacuum. Food is vacuum-packed in pouches, cooked under a vacuum, then chilled and stored for up to 3 months. The pouches are later reheated in hot water for service. Sous vide food is used most often by hotels, restaurants and caterers.
Spa A facility that provides baths, hot springs, health facilities and other services.
Space 1) Area in a facility where a group’s private functions may be held. 2) Exhibitor location in the hall.
Space Assignment Booth/stand space assigned to exhibiting companies or meeting rooms assigned to event groups.
Space Draw/Selection The process of assigning exhibit space for the next event based on the exhibitors’ active involvement in the process.
Space Rate Cost per square foot/meter for exhibit space.
Space Requirements Amount of stand/booth space required by individual exhibitors.
Space Reservation Form Form or special request to utilize a particular space.
Space Verification Certification of measurements of meeting space through the Function Space Verification Program offered by the Professional Convention Management Association or through graphics layout software companies, e.g. MeetingMatrix.
Spade Connectors Fork shaped metal connectors soldered, or crimped, to wire ends for connection to terminals having machine screw or knurled nut contacts.
Spanakopeta Phyllo pie triangle stuffed with spinach.
Spark Pot A pyrotechnic device that emits a burst of sparks, usually silver, when ignited.
Spatzle Tiny dumplings.
Speaker 1) The presenter of a program. Types of speakers include keynote, general session, seminar leader, trainer, workshop leader, and “change of pace” speakers such as humorists and entertainers. 2) Device for sound output.
Speaker Groups A group of speakers with varying areas of expertise, who team up to share leads and marketing expenses.
Speaker Platforms Platforms on the right and left of stage used to elevate sound equipment.
Speaker Questionnaire A series of questions initiated by a speaker or bureau to better understand the organization, their needs, and the audience in order to prepare for a presentation.
Speaker Stand See Also Lectern
Speaker’s Guidelines 1) Instructions regarding the specific expectations for a speaker at an event. Usually outlined are the required format for presentations, AV request procedures, travel and accommodations instructions, etc. 2) Instructions regarding the required format to be used for the written preparation of a speech.
Speaker’s Guidelines/Kit 1) The written presentation of a speech. 2) Instructions regarding the required format to be used for the written preparation of a speech.
Speakers’ Ready Room See Also Ready Room, Try Out Room
Speakers’ Room/Lounge See Also Ready Room, Try Out Room
Spec Guide Specifications Guide. The industry preferred term for a comprehensive document that outlines the complete requirements and instructions for an event. This document is typically authored by the event planner and is shared with all appropriate vendors as a vehicle to communicate the expectations of services for a project. The industry accepted practice is to use the APEX Specifications Guide, which can be found at the Convention Industry Council ( Sometimes called STAGING GUIDE, RESUME, BIBLE.
Special Block Small block within the event’s room block reserved for dignitaries or people with special needs.
Special Commodity Carrier A carrier that transports special handling shipments or other commodities that are sensitive by their packaging, contents or transit time requirements. These carriers can handle packaged or blanket wrapped shipments.
Special Event One time event staged for the purpose of celebration; unique activity.
Special Event Tour A TOUR designed around a particular event, e.g. the Kentucky Derby, Mardi Gras, or Rose Bowl Parade. See Also Tour
Special Events Company A company that presents special effects and theatrical acts. This type of company may contract to put on an entire event or only parts of one. They sometimes hire speakers as part of their contract.
Special Handling Applies to display shipments requiring extra labor, equipment, or time in delivery to booth/stand area.
Special Interest Tour A TOUR designed to appeal to clients with a curiosity or a concern about a specific subject. Most special interest tours provide an expert tour guide and usually visit places and/or events of specific interest to the participants. See Also Tour
Special Market Foreign countries with high potential for U.S. travel, but without a USTTA office. U.S. promotional activities under the guidance of Visit USA Committees. Often with the cooperation of the U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service, an agency of the U.S. Commerce Department.
Special Needs Any physical or mental consideration that requires special alternatives to ensure an event’s physical space, technologies, and food and beverage accommodates those individual needs. Special needs can include food allergies, wheelchair access, signing interpreters, etc. In the United States, see the Americans with Disabilities Act for specific guidelines.
Special Rate An amount charged for the occupancy of a room, usually at a reduced rate and negotiated as a group rate by the conference organizers.
Special Rate Package A lowered, all inclusive rate, frequently including one or more meals for two or three nights, that is offered to the general public; often used to generate off-season or weekend business.
Special-Interest Group Group travel program designed for persons with common interests.
Specialty Contractor A supplier of a specific event service, such as photography, rental of furniture or audiovisual equipment, or floral decoration.
Specifications Guide Spec Guide. The industry preferred term for a comprehensive document that outlines the complete requirements and instructions for an event. This document is typically authored by the event planner and is shared with all appropriate vendors as a vehicle to communicate the expectations of services for a project. The industry accepted practice is to use the APEX Specifications Guide, which can be found at the Convention Industry Council ( Sometimes called STAGING GUIDE, RESUME, BIBLE.
Speech Address, usually formal discourse delivered before an audience.
Speech Amplification Technique whereby, with the help of a microphone and an amplifier, the volume of the human voice is amplified.
Speed Ball Type of pen used in calligraphy and sign writing.
Spike Marks Tape or chalk marks on studio or stage floors designating exact placement of props and actors.
Spinning Technique for working sheet metal into concave or convex shapes.
Spin-Off Speaker booking that occurs because an audience member hires a speaker for another event.
SPL See Also Sound Pressure Level
Splice The twisting together of two or more electrical wires to provide continuous power, housed inside an approved junction box.
Split Charter Two or more groups share the same flight.
Split Entree Smaller portions of two different items for the main course of a dinner. See Also Surf and Turf
Split Folio This is when a guest has two folios, one for room and tax and the other for incidental charges. Most often used when the room and tax are going on the Master Account, and the guest (often a speaker, VIP or staff) is responsible for things like phone, in-room movies, minibar purchases, etc. It is also used when the guest is reimbursed for lodging and meals (e.g. government employees), but must pay his/her own incidental expenses.
Split Pick-up/Delivery Pick-up or delivery of multiple shipments at more than one place of business.
Split Screen Horizontally or vertically separated video pictures shown simultaneously.
Split Ticketing The agency practice of issuing two one-way tickets instead of a round-trip ticket, usually to obtain a lower fare. Used often on international flights due to foreign exchange rate differences.
Splits A small bottle containing about half the usual quantity of liquor.
Splitter In laser technology, an attachment that divides the beam into two parts according to power, not color.
Spokesperson A designated representative who has the authority, knowledge, and credibility to speak and be interviewed by the media.
Sponsor Person(s) or company(s) underwriting all or part of the costs of an event. Sponsors may or may not participate in any of the profit from the event. 2) An individual who assumed all or part of the financial responsibility for an event. A commercial sponsor that provides financial backing for an aspect of an event and who in return receives visibility, advertising or other remuneration in lieu of cash.
Sponsored Bar Private room bar set up where guests do not pay for drinks. See Also Open Bar, Host Bar
Sponsored Child Care Facility On-site childcare service provided by the event/host organization.
Sponsorship Donated financial or material support, usually in exchange for recognition; Paid opportunity for entity or an exhibitor to increase its visibility at the event.
Sporting Event An event where athletes compete and spectators view the athletic activities and ceremonies.
Spot One who reports and marks the location site for ground transportation loading of participants.
Spot Exchange The exchange rate for foreign currency for immediate purchase/delivery. See Also Exchange Rate
Spot Rehearsal Rehearsal of any portion of a production.
Spot Time Designated time for vehicle or staff to report to assignment.
Spotlight Strong focused light thrown upon a particular person or object, such as on a stage.
Spotting Placement of equipment in exact location in booth by using a forklift.
Spouse Husband or wife of an event attendee. See Also Accompanying Person , Significant Other
Spouse Programs Educational and/or social events planned for spouses and guests of event participants.
Sprinkler A device which scatters liquid (usually water) in drops or particles. Can be used as a part of a fire protection system or landscaping aid.
Spumoni Ice cream with fruits and nuts molded into sections.
SQL Structured Query Language. A specialized programming language for sending queries to databases. It is used by many database systems to retrieve and modify information.
Square Set-Up Seating arrangement in which double- or triple-wide tables are set up with chairs placed around all sides.
Squib Head An electrical igniter used to initiate a pyrotechnic effect. Sometimes called a Fuse Head.
Squirrel Cage Revolving drum used for raffle tickets.
SSR Self-Service Reservations. Also referred to as online selfservice.
ST Labor Straight Time Labor. Labor performed and paid at standard rate for work during normal business hours as established by unions.
Stable 1) Group of speakers or entertainers usually under agreement with a particular bureau or agency. 2) An area where horses are kept and fed.
Stack Buses assembled in one location convenient for passenger loading.
Stacking Chairs Chairs that nest on top of each other when in storage.
Stadium Facility usually designed for baseball or football as a primary function. May be domed or open-air. Sometimes difficult to distinguish from a large arena.
Stage The portion of an auditorium or room that has been structured into a formal area for productions or presentations.
Stage Call 1) Designated time and/or number of crew members required at stage for task assignments. 2) Asking a celebrity or speaker to return to the stage after completing the presentation.
Stage Directions Instructions in the script concerning movements and arrangements on the stage.
Stage Left and Right Directions from the perspective of a person on stage, as opposed to CAMERA LEFT AND RIGHT. See Also Camera Left and Right, Audience Left and Right, Screen Left and Right
Stage Lighting Illumination for the platform for performers, musicians, actors, or speakers
Stage Manager Person responsible for running the event.
Stage Master Person at a venue in charge of stage facilities.
Stage Plot Diagram, drawn to scale, indicating placement on stage of artists’ equipment, props, microphones, etc.
Stage Right and Left Directions as one faces audience from the stage.
Stagehand Union labor that handles spotlights, rigging, and scenery for theatrical productions. In some cities, they may also handle decorating tasks, such as hanging draperies at convention facilities.
Staging 1) Design and placement of elements for events. 2) Implementation of an event.
Staging Area 1) A place for demonstration. 2) In catering, an area for preparing service equipment and supplies. 3) A preparation area, usually on premises, where suppliers review orders and organize items before delivering them to exhibit booths/stands. 4) An area adjacent to a loading dock where freight trucks wait until they may unload. 5) Area adjacent to main event area for setup, dismantling, and temporary storage.
Staging Guide See Also Specifications Guide
Stakeholders All individuals who are invested in a project or event such as the sponsors, attendees, vendors, media and others.
Stakes Pointed pegs used to secure the guy ropes of a tent in the ground. Wooded stakes are used for grass-covered earth, steel stakes are required when the ground is extremely hard, rocky or paved. See Also Anchor
Stanchions Upright posts used to support signage, markers, or flags. Ropes may be attached to prevent entry, define traffic areas, and control crowds. See Also Bank Maze
Stand European term for booth or exhibit. See Also Booth
Standard Agreement Contract suggested as a guide by a national or international union as a guide for adoption or use by its locals.
Standard Industrial Classification SIC A standard numerical code system used by the U.S. Government to classify products and services. See Also Nomenclature of the Customs Cooperation Council, Standard Industrial Classification
Standard Industrial Trade Classification SITC A standard numerical code system developed by the United Nations to classify commodities used in international trade. See Also Nomenclature of the Customs Cooperation Council, Standard Industrial Classification
Standard Operating Procedure SOP Official written procedure or policy for dealing with a specific situation.
Standby Attempt to travel on a flight without a confirmed reservation, if space is available.
Stand-In 1) Person substituting for a performer or speaker. 2) The role of a vice-president in the absence of the president.
Standing Committee Committee, defined by organizational bylaws, which meets for a specific purpose.
Star Billing See Also 100% Star Billing
Star Rating It is common for hotels, restaurants and other facilities to advertise their status as determined by one or more systems of rating such as Mobil, AAA, Zagats and others. As these systems can be national or regional, they are anything but uniform. Equally, ratings are sometimes represented by diamonds, rosettes, crowns and other insignia. In France, for example, there is no grade above four-star, although many properties offer five-star standards. See Also 1 Diamond, 1 Star, 2 Diamond, 2 Star
Stat A direct paper reproduction of two-dimensional graphics without the use of photographic film.
State Travel Office An official government agency or privately run, nonprofit organization responsible for travel development and promotion of a state (or territory). Often, an office responsible for travel development is part of another department or agency of a state government such as commerce and economic development. State travel offices vary in sizes of staffs and budgets.
State/Province Event An event that draws more than 80% of attendees from the state/province in which the event is held. Less than 20% of attendees reside outside a 20%-mile (80 km) radius of event site. State/provincial audiences are less inclined to use air travel and local auto rental than regional audiences. See Also National Event, Regional Event, Local Event
State-Controlled Trading Company In a country with a state trading monopoly, a trading entity empowered by the country’s government to conduct export business.
Statement of Account Statement of income and expenses following the end of an event.
State-of-the-Art Newest technology available.
Station A banquet server’s assigned area. Also refers to the individual buffet tables located throughout a reception area, with each table offering one food item or representing one theme.
Station Manager Usually the senior airline representative at an airport.
Statistics Quantitative details of an event (number of attendees, sleeping rooms, etc.).
Stats Photostats. Photographic material used in preparing camera-ready art. Also known as Velox. 2). Abbreviation for statistics.
Stay Over A guest who stays at a housing facility (hotel, motel, etc.) one or more days longer than his or her scheduled departure date. Also Called OVERSTAY, UNDER DEPART. See Also Under-Stay
STB Surface Transportation Board. See Also Surface Transportation Board
STBS Set Top Box Solutions. Portable videoconferencing system, usually mounted on a rolling cart or hard-sided case for ease of transport from room to room or across the globe.
Steady A full time employee of a company or organization.
Steady Extra The first extra banquet servers called when extra service help is required.
Steak Tartare Raw, ground filet mignon; highly seasoned.
Steamship Round Roast beef often carved at receptions. From the hip (round) of the beef.
Steering Committee Select group which sets policies and makes basic decisions relative to a group or an event.
Step-On-Guide A freelance guide who comes aboard a motorcoach to give an informed overview of the city or attraction to be toured.
Stepper Switch Electrical relay that is timed to activate further mechanisms after it has been itself activated.
Stereo Sound that seems to be three dimensional to the listener. This is achieved by reproducing slightly different sounds in two separated speakers. Stereo recordings are generated by a minimum of two microphones.
STET Proofreading term noted when copy marked for deletion is to be put back in its original form.
Stock Resident company of players performing one play nightly for a week and rehearsing another play for the following week.
Stock Bill A list of specific materials and sizes.
Stock Exhibits A predesigned unit adapted to particular use by identification, color, graphics and minor structural modifications.
Stop Motion Motion picture or video frame that is stopped so a single frame is displayed. See Also Freeze Frame
Stopover An intentional interruption of the trip that either prevents a continuous through fare or is permitted by the carrier with a through fare.
Storage Area Space at a show set aside for storage of crates or materials.
Story Pole Fixed pole with predetermined layout markings.
Storyboard Series of sketches or pictures which outline the subject to be developed.
STP Satellite Ticket Printer. Usually dedicated to a specific account to ensure complete accountability for all transactions processed and controlled by vendor.
Straight Bill Bill of lading that is non-negotiable.
Straight Brace Tent component that is designed to prevent a tent from collapsing.
Straight Time Labor performed and paid at standard rate for work during normal business hours as established by unions. See Also ST Labor
Straight Truck Flat-floor truck, usually with a cargo area of 14 to 20 feet. Normally used for local or short-haul moves.
Strategic Plan Long range plan of action for a company or organization.
Strategic Relationships An agreement between two or more enterprises to conduct specified business processes in a joint manner. Usually related to technology development and/or marketing and distribution efforts.
Stratified Sample A population is divided into similar groups and each group is then randomly sampled.
Streaming The software that makes Webcasting work. These “stream” audio and video from a central source, or media server, to recipients on their personal computers.
Streaming Media A method for delivering audio, video and animated content over the Web. Streaming refers to the ability of Web site visitors to access multimedia content without having to download an entire file first.
Street Beat Drum beat accompanying band which is marching but not playing. Cadence.
Stretch Wrap 1) Process of wrapping and consolidating exhibit crates, boxes and loose items on a pallet with heat-sealed, transparent plastic wrapping. 2) A plastic film used to wrap pallets of freight for shipping. It comes in various colors, but black is preferable for security purposes. STRETCH WRAP is often erroneously referred to as SHRINK WRAP, which must be heated to cause shrinkage and tight fit to the item being wrapped. See Also Shrink Wrap, Pallet Wrap
Stretcher General term for cross member mounted between sides or legs of cabinets, or between upright poles in a pipe and drape booth/stand, to ensure rigidity. These typically hold the drape to form the booth/stand.
Strike 1) Dismantle exhibits. 2) To remove all scenery and props from the stage. 3) Union walkout.
Strip 1) To put a negative into place as part of a larger or composite negative in preparing to make an offset printing plate. 2) To clear tables or a function room.
Strip Light 1) Fixture with a line of lamps, often with reflectors and color gels, used in color lighting. 2) Fluorescent lighting wired in a line.
Strobe Light Rapidly blinking, high-intensity light.
Strong Back A framing member using the triangular system to support a cantilever load.
Structured Question Prepare eight or ten questions per one hour presentation to be distributed in advance of the session to selected attendees. Following each major presentation, attendees ask questions from the list.
Stud Vertical structural wall support of wood or metal.
Studio Room with a couch or couches that convert to beds.
Study Day Day devoted to the study of a particular subject or subjects.
Study Group A meeting to review a particular situation; no recommendations or solutions are expected as a result.
Study Mission Tour of a work place or manufacturing plant of interest to a conference. See Also Educational Visit
Style Sheet A list of special spellings, terms and style points to be used consistently in publications related to an event.
Styrofoam Trade name for lightweight rigid form of compressed polystyrene crystals.
SU See Also Set-Up
Sub-Block Any group of rooms that is classified or separated differently than the general attendee block within the Event-Contracted Block (ECB). See Also Event-Contracted Block
Subcommittee A group of people, frequently including one or more members of the main committee, meeting outside of the main committee, with responsibilities for specific items.
Subcontractor An individual or business, which contracts to perform part or all of the obligations of another’s contract. Company retained by a contractor to provide services to exhibitors or event management; outsourcing.
Submersible Pumps Pumps that operate underwater.
Subsidy A grant of money or financial assistance, usually by a government to a private person or company, to assist an enterprise deemed advantageous to the public.
Suburban Hotel Hotel on the outskirts of a large city, which may or may not be near local attractions.
Subwoofer Loudspeaker system designed to produce or reproduce only low frequency sounds, typically below 120% hertz.
Suitcasing When a company tries to sell its product or service on the show floor without the permission or consent of the event’s management.
Suite Combination of interconnecting rooms generally containing a sitting room with a half-bathroom and one or more sleeping rooms.
Suite Hotel A hotel whose entire inventory of sleeping rooms have separate bedroom, bathroom, living room or parlor areas, and possibly a kitchenette or other special features. Also called ALL SUITE HOTEL.
Summary A Synopsis. Written short version of speech or paper.
Summary of Discussions A summation of discussions that have taken place.
Summary Record/Report A short review of a speech, debate or discussion.
Super-APEX Fare APEX fare at a lower rate with more restrictions. See Also APEX Fare
Superimposition Technique of projecting two visual images on a screen at the same time.
Supernumerary Super. An extra or walk-on in a production with no individual lines of his/her own to speak.
Supersaver Fares Marketing term used by some carriers to describe some categories of discount fares, usually applied to fares requiring seven (7), fourteen (14), twenty one (21) day advance purchase and stay over a Saturday night. The reservation is subject to cancellation if the ticket is not purchased before the time set by the carrier. If your reservation is booked by an agency, the airline considers it ticketed and sets no time limit.
Supersonic Faster than the speed of sound (approximately 344 meters or 1130 feet per second at sea level).
Supper Light late evening meal.
Supplemental Airline Non-scheduled airline.
Supplemental Liability Coverage In a car rental agreement, additional coverage for injury and damage claims by third parties beyond the amount provided automatically under the contract terms.
Supplier Purveyor, provider, vendor, contractor offering facilities, products and/or services.
Support Staff Part- or full-time personnel who provide services for tasks associated with programs, events, or conventions.
Supreme 1) Sauce cooked with a browned roux, thinned with chicken stock, and seasoned with lemon juice and parsley. 2) Silver bowl holder that is filled with ice to surround chilled items, such as vischysoisse.
Surcharge Charge over and above established rates, such as an energy surcharge.
Surf and Turf A main course that includes both seafood and meat, such as a lobster tail and a beef filet. See Also Split Entree, Dualing Menus
Surface Transportation Board STB Formerly the Interstate Commerce Commission, an oversight board that is part of the DOT. Responsible for overseeing the transportation of goods between states. All for-hire truckers and railroads are required to receive proper authority from the STB before offering themselves to the public for hire. Certain carriers are exempt from the STB’s jurisdiction, but no carriers are exempt from safety regulations.
Surname Name by which all immediate family members are known. Women usually (but not always) adopt their husband’s surname upon marriage. Same as LAST NAME, FAMILY NAME (preferred). See Also Family Name, Given Name
Survey Solicitation of opinions regarding services; questionnaire.
Sushi A Japanese food made with sweetened rice. Fish (raw or cooked) and/or vegetables are placed on the rice or wrapped with the rice and a sheet of seaweed.
Suspended Elements An attachment of devices to the frame work of an exhibition hall.
Suspension Definite ending of an event for a specific and unplanned reason.
Sweep A method used for setting up and cutting circles or arches.
Switch Electrical on/off switch used directly in wiring to control, by make or break, the flow of current.
Switchboard A combination of switches, dimmer plates and fuses for controlling light. See Also Dimmer Board
Switcher 1) Engineer (technical director) who is switching from camera to camera. 2) Panel with rows of buttons that allows switching from one camera or sound source to another.
Symposium A meeting of a number of experts in a particular field, at which papers are presented and discussed by specialists on particular subjects with a view to making recommendations concerning the problems under discussion.
Synchronization (Sync) Sound and picture recorded or played back at the same time.
System A stock set of components that can be put together to make an exhibit.
T&M Time and Materials.
T&T Tax & Tip. Addition of taxes and gratuities to a price when not included, designated by + +.
T/D/B/A Trading and Doing Business As.
T-1 Line Transmitting data at speeds of up to 1.544 Mbps, operates at a much higher capacity than an ISDN line and can be split to accommodate several users at one time (known as a fractional T-1).
T-3 Line Transmitting data at speeds of up to 44.184 Mbps, is faster than a T-1 line, allowing performance of more tasks simultaneously at a greater speed. See Also T-1 Line
Tabbouleh A Middle Eastern relish.
Table d’ Hôte Full course, fixed price meal (prix fixe).
Table Tent A small sign used to identify the speaker or speakers. See Also Name Card, Place Card
Table Wine Class of wine naturally fermented to about 12 percent alcohol. Typically used as a house wine.
Tablescape The aesthetic layout of the banquet table, including the centerpiece, color of linen, napkin folds, china and flatware, etc.
Tablet Chairs Chairs with attached writing surfaces. See Also Writing Chairs
Table-Top Display/Exhibit Small portable display that can be set up on top of a table.
Tabs The main front curtain of a stage.
Tactical Steps Short-range actions to implement a long-range strategy.
Taffeta Type of material used for skirting or special draping.
Tailoring When a speaker adjusts his or her material to the particular needs of an audience.
Talent 1) Performer, entertainer. 2) Outside personnel stationed in an exhibit booth/stand to demonstrate a product, provide attraction to booth or greet visitors. Includes magicians and similar attractions. See Also Model , Presenter
Talk Show Set-Up Seating arrangement, often used for panel discussions, in which a desk (for the moderator/facilitator) is set perpendicular to arm chairs for the panelists.
Talkback Speaker system that connects the control room with the studio.
Tallow Carving Display piece carved from lamb’s fat and wax. Usually all white, but can be tinted.
Tally Light Small red light on the camera, indicating when the camera is on.
Tally Sheet See Also Account Sheet
Tap Device used for starting or stopping the flow of beverage from a container, such as a keg.
Tape Blip An audible impulse that activates an electric mechanism.
Tape Player Machine designed only for playback of recorded magnetic tapes.
Tape Recorder A device for recording sound on magnetic tape.
Tapered Edge Any material that is reduced in thickness at its outer edge.
Tare Weight The weight of a container and/or packing materials deducted from the total weight to determine the weight of the contents or load.. See Also Gross Weight
Target Date A date set by event management and/or general service contractor for the arrival of freight at a trade event. Usually shipments received before or after this date are assessed a penalty charge.
Target Language Language into which a speech or document is translated.
Tariff 1) A schedule of duties imposed by a government on imported and exported goods. 2) Published list of fares or rates and conditions of service from a supplier.
Tax Exempt Exempted from taxation; providing interest or income that is exempted from taxation.
Tax Exempt Certificate Document needed from customer to verify tax exemption status in the state the event is held.
Tchotchke A Yiddish slang term for the little giveaways at tradeshow booths/stands or for in-room amenities, gift bags, etc. Also spelled Tsatske (pronounced chaat-ski).
Teach-In A session specially instituted for the application of such modifications and additions as are necessary to keep a particular subject up-to-date.
Team of Interpreters A group of people responsible for interpreting simultaneously by utilizing equipment.
Tear Down Dismantle.
Teaser Promotional piece designed to build interest in an event.
Tech Check Review of all technical aspects of the production.
Technical Director Person who calls cues from the control room.
Technical Meeting See Also Scientific Meeting
Technical Rehearsal Run-through of technical aspects of an event such as lighting, sound, special effects, etc.
Technical Visit Tour by conference delegates to a workplace related to their particular interests.
Technical Writer Someone hired by a speaker to prepare scripts, workbooks, audios, videos, or articles on contract.
Technician Expert in particular craft or technique usually in relation to audiovisual, mechanical or electrical equipment or appliances.
Technological Factors Factors related to equipment used in the learning environment that affect the way a person learns.
Teen Hospitality A room or area set aside as part of a event childcare/youth program offering activities for young adults accompanying a parent to an event.
Telco Patch Device which allows the patching of program signal into or receives program material from telephone lines.
Telecine A device used originally to send out motion pictures over the TV channel. Now it is used to convert original film to video prints.
Telecommunications Electronic communication that involves the transmission of encoded sound, pictures, or data over significant distances, using radio signals or electrical or optical lines. The most common method of telecommuncation is via telephone or the Internet.
Teleconference Type of meeting which brings together three or more people in two or more locations through telecommunications. See Also Conference Call
Telemarketing Solicitation by telephone.
TelePrompTer® Electronic device which allows display of script for speaker to read during presentation.
Telescopic Pipe Drape support where one section slides inside another for use at various lengths.
Tempered Pressed Wood A hardwood product generally used in backwall paneling.
Template Pattern or guide for various repetitive shop functions. See Also Cutting Sheet
Temporary Import Exhibition material whose temporary import status exempts payment of duties and taxes on arrival.
Temporary Import Bond The surety covering articles imported into a country on a temporary basis. This is generally done in lieu of paying import duties and/or taxes. The fee for the bond is non – refundable in most cases.
Temps Temporary workers used for registration and other duties.
Tension Structure A tent designed to have all perimeter loading equally distributed over a series of catenaty arches which provides greater stability.
Tent Portable canvas shelter. Usually used to house outdoor functions.
Tent Board Two boards held together with hinges that form a tent-like structure for signs. See Also Sandwich Board
Tent Specialist Rental specialist who rents and installs tents for events.
Tentative Status assigned to an event after a bid has been submitted to the event organizer and the destination or facility is waiting for a final decision.
Tentative Agenda The proposed agenda as circulated prior to its approval at the meeting.
Tentative Hold A space temporarily held by a facility or venue for a specific date pending a definite booking. There are no consequences for cancellation. See Also Option
Terminal A building or area needed by transportation operators and passengers at either end of a travel or shipping route by air, rail, road, or sea.
Terminal Server A computer that has places to plug in many modems on one side and connection to a LAN or host machine on the other side. The terminal server answers calls and passes the connections on to the appropriate host computer.
Terrine Similar to a pate. It is baked in an earthenware dish from which it is served.
Territory A defined geographical region or area of prospects and clients.
Testimonial A letter of recommendation from a former buyer or organization that is familiar with a speaker’s work.
Theater Facility with fixed seats usually on a sloped floor with site lines focused on a permanent state. Typically a Stage Box is located behind the Proscenium which contains the performance area and the Fly Loft.
Theater Semicircular Set-Up Seating arrangement in which seats are in semicircular rows facing the stage area, no tables.
Theater Set-Up Seating arrangement in which seats are in rows facing the stage area, no tables. See Also Auditorium Set-Up
Theatrical Case A telescoping fiber case with canvas straps.
Theme Break A break during formal program sessions with special food and beverages pertaining to a theme and often including decorations, costumes, and entertainment.
Theme Party Event at which all foods, beverages, decorations, and entertainment relate to a single theme.
Thin Wall Conduit Lightweight electrical conduit.
Think Tank A group of specialists organized by a business enterprise, governmental body and commissions to undertake intensive study and research into specified problems.
Third Party A person other than the principals.
Three Dimensional 3-D. A flat image having the effect of three dimensions.
Three Sheet Bed made with a third sheet on top of the blanket. Also Called TRIPLE SHEET. See Also Triple Sheet
Three Wire Term describing electrical cable with one continuous ground wire in addition to positive and negative wires.
Through Bill of Lading A single bill of lading (B/L) covering both the domestic and international carriage of an export shipment, a air waybill, for instance, is essentially a through bill of lading used for air shipments. Ocean shipments, on the other hand, usually require two separate documents – an inland bill of lading for domestic carriage and an ocean bill of lading for international carriage. Through bills of lading, therefore, cannot be used. See Also Air Waybill, Bill of Lading, Inland Bill of Lading, Ocean Bill of Lading
Throw Projection distance.
TIAA Travel Industry Association of America.
Ticket Exchange Banquet-control procedure whereby guests exchange an event coupon from their registration packet for an actual event ticket and seat assignment. Increases control. Also tends to reduce the number of no shows to provide more accurate guarantees.
Ticket Revalidation System of amending an airline ticket to reflect new flights booked.
Ticketing Agreement A contract between airlines to accept each other’s tickets for transportation.
Tidy Up To refresh and clean a room after guest’s departure when full service had been given earlier.
Tie-Off A method of securing shipment by use of nylon belts and block latches.
Tiered One or more rows arranged above each other.
TIFF Tagged-Image File Format. A graphic file format. TIFF files are also bitmaps that can be any size, resolution or color depth. The TIFF is used to exchange files between applications and computer platforms such as Macintosh and IBM PC-compatible computers.
Timbre Characteristic sound. Timbre is formed and affected by the ratios of harmonics to their fundamental, allowing for the difference heard in the same pitch played on different instruments.
Time & Materials Method of charging for services on a time spent plus actual cost of materials basis.
Time Agenda An outline program of events and time of commencement that is tailored to the needs of an event; also known as sequence of events.
Time Coding The numerical synchronization of sound and film elements, encoded with matching numbers (frame to frame) to ensure synchronicity.
Time Delay Length of time between the production of live sound and when it is actually heard.
Time Draft A draft which matures either a certain number of days after acceptance or a certain number of days after the date of draft. Also Date Draft, Sight Draft
Time Lines Includes each task to be accomplished and is the core of the program plan.
Timecode The sequential numbers assigned to each frame of video or film representing the passage of time in hours, minutes, seconds, and even tenths of seconds, for example 01:20:35:10, which indicates that this frame can be found in the first hour, twentieth minute, thirty-fifth second, and first tenth of a second of videotape or film. Time codes are used for catalog purposes when identifying scenes and are most important during editing, saving valuable time in locating scenes needed for a particular edit.
TIP A voluntary and selective amount of money, given at will for special or excellent service.
Tiramisu An Italian dessert including marscapone cheese and flavored with coffee.
Title Denotes person’s rank, office, sex or, in women, matrimonial status.
Titles Graphic materials shown on camera.
Tivoli Lights The small white lights on cords, used to decorate ficus and other trees.
TL Truckload.
TLO Total Loss Only.
Toggle Switch A lever moved back and forth to open or close an electric circuit.
Toilet Sanitary convenience. Also Called LAVATORY, WATER CLOSET (WC).
Ton Freight rates for liner cargo generally quoted on the basis of a certain rate per ton, depending on the nature of the commodity. This ton, however, may be a weight ton (2000 pounds) or a measurement ton.
Tongue & Groove Construction techniques of assembling two wood elements, one piece having a protrusion, and the other piece having a recess, which interlock.
Top Hat A metal tube that fits in the front of a lighting fixture to reduce the spill of stray light without reshaping the beam or creating hard edges.
Top Table Seating location for honored guests and/or event presenters. See Also Head Table
Tormentor The horizontal curtain that runs from stage right to left connecting the vertical curtains called teasers.
Tortoni Vanilla ice cream blended with crushed macaroons and frozen in little frilled paper cups.
TOT Transient Occupancy Tax. Tax placed on hotel/motel room rentals. Generally all or part of revenues thus generated is used in financing the operation of convention facilities. Also Called BED TAX, ROOM TAX, HOTEL TAX.
Total Admission Per Spite The total admission revenue less discounts divided by total attendance including complimentary admissions.
Total Meeting Room Days Total number of event rooms in a facility multiplied by the number of opportunities to lease the space. Commonly 365 days is used as the multiplier.
Total Room Day Inventory Total number of leasable square feet within a facility multiplied by the number of days in the year.
Tote Bag A large bag given to all attendees when they arrive at the meeting or event to collect handouts and carry materials.
Touch Up Paints accompanying an exhibit, in the necessary colors, for the purpose of painting nicks and scratches.
Tour 1) Any prearranged journey to one or more destinations and back to the point of origin. 2) A recreational trip or activity provided to event attendees and/or accompanying persons as a scheduled portion of the event program. Also Called EXCURSION.
Tour Broker An individual licensed and bonded by the Interstate Commerce Commission to operate motor coach tours in the US and, in some cases, Canada. See Also Tour Operator
Tour Conductor See Also Escort
Tour Departure Related to the operation of any published tour: the date of the start by any individual or group of a particular travel program, by extension, the entire operation of that single tour.
Tour Escort See Also Escort
Tour Guide Someone who takes people on sightseeing excursions of limited duration.
Tour Leader See Also Escort
Tour Operator A person or company that creates and/or markets inclusive tours and/or subcontracts their performance. Most tour operators sell through travel agents and/or directly to clients. See Also Contractor, Operator
Tour Option Any component at a package tour that is not included in the package price, but may be purchased as an added feature or to extend the length of the package. Tour options are purchased at additional cost.
Tour Package 1) Prearranged combination of elements such as air, hotel, sightseeing and social events packaged together and sold as an all-inclusive package price, not sold by component parts. 2) To package, meaning to combine elements as above into an all-inclusive package product sold as such at a package price. See Also Package
Tour Voucher A certificate issued by a tour broker to be used for lodging, meals, sight seeing tours, etc.
Tour-Based Fares Reduced rate excursion fares available to those who buy prepaid tours or packages.
Tourism The business of providing and marketing services and facilities for pleasure of travelers. Thus, the concept of tourism is of direct concern to governments, carriers, and the lodging, restaurant and entertainment industries, and of indirect concern to virtually every industry and business in the world.
Tourist Card A type of visa issued to tourists prior to entertain a country (required in addition to a passport or other proof of citizenship).
Tourist Information Board Nonprofit organization supported by transient room taxes, government budget allocations, private memberships, or a combination of any of these funding mechanisms. A CVB typically encourages groups to hold events, conventions and trade shows in its city, assists those groups with advance preparation and during meetings, and promotes tourism. See Also Convention and Visitors Bureau
Tourist Office An organization which exists to promote a town or country to groups or individuals as a tourist destination.
Tourist Service A service concerned with the organization of excursions which are purely pleasure.
Tow Motor See Also Forklift/Forktruck
Tower Structure to which lighting instruments are attached.
Track Lighting Lights attached along a rod-like metal track mounted on a ceiling or wall permitting flexible spotlighting and other lighting effects.
Tractor-Trailer Tractor is the driving unit of a large truck; trailer is the container unit.
Trade Relating to groups whose members work in common fields.
Trade Association Group of persons or businesses in a particular trade or industry. Generally these organizations are exempt from federal income tax under Section 20%1(c)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code.
Trade Center Special purpose office building oriented toward a specific group of users. Typically, wholesalers in a specific industry (e.g., furniture, apparel) have showrooms to exhibit products to buyers.
Trade Day Day of an exhibition restricted to attendance by professional or trade visitors.
Trade Fair An international term for an exhibition.
Trade Missions Group tour with a business rather than a vacation purpose. Usually planned for business or government representatives traveling overseas to secure new business in foreign markets for their product, city or other entity.
Trade Publication A magazine that targets a specific industry.
Trade Show An exhibition of products and/or services held for members of a common or related industry. Not open to the general public. Also Exhibition, Gate Show, Public Show, Consumer Show
Trade Show Facilitation Web Site A Web-site whose primary function is to provide attendees (buyers) and exhibitors (sellers) with online tools that help facilitate participation in an upcoming event.
Trade-Out A type of barter. The exchange of goods and services instead of using money.
Traffic Density How crowded the aisles are at an event.
Traffic Flow Movement of people through an area. A supposed or directed path that attendees will take through an exhibition.
Trailer Interline Temporary transfer of control of a trailer from one carrier to a connecting carrier, without the need to re-handle the cargo.
Trainer Instructor of techniques and skills on a specific subject.
Training Meeting Structured learning session in which instructor presents specific information and techniques.
Tramp Steamer A ship not operating on regular routes or schedules. Calls at any point where cargo is available.
Transaction A reservation for airline, hotel or car presented to a queue for processing; a key operational definition of the billing process with each transaction billed to a client at a contract-specified rate, generally $xx per transaction.
Transcription Written copy of spoken material.
Transducer Device which converts one form of energy directly into another form of energy. Loudspeakers, microphone and motors are transducers which convert motion into electricity or vice versa. Light-emitting diodes and solar cells are transducers that convert electricity to light or vice versa, etc.
Transfer 1) Process of moving equipment and/or people from one point to another. 2) Transportation between terminals and hotels. 3) To copy a picture or sound that is transmitted by one recorder to another, or to make a tape copy from film.
Transformative Learning Learning that occurs during the second half of life which is directed at attaining a new consciousness and selfunderstanding.
Transformer Device used to isolate or to raise or lower an A.C. voltage from its input to its output. A typical transformer may consist of two separate coils of wire wound on a magnetic steel score. When an A.C. current passes through the input coil (primary) it produces an alternative magnetic field in the core, which in turn produces current flow in the output coil (secondary). By winding, a greater number of coil turns for the secondary winding, the input voltage is raised at the output; by using fewer secondary turns, the output voltage is lowered. An isolation transformer uses the same number of turns for primary and secondary, maintaining the same input voltage at the output while severing the electrical connection of the two coil windings.
Transient Momentary amplitude peak in program source. A pop from a switch or scratched record may form signal transients. Musical transients occur as a result of such things as percussion instruments, piano and guitar. Normal musical transients may have amplitude peaks as high as 40dB above the average program levels, requiring headroom in the circuits and equipment used to reproduce them.
Transient Occupancy Tax TOT Tax placed on hotel/motel room rentals. Generally all or part of revenues thus generated is used in financing the operation of convention facilities. Also Called BED TAX, ROOM TAX, HOTEL TAX.
Transient Response Response of audio equipment to sudden large changes in signal amplitude, such as those produced by musical transients.
Transient Space Short-term rental space.
Transit Passenger changing planes without going through security and/or customs.
Transit and Exhibition Insurance The insurance that covers loss or damage caused deliberately or accidentally by third parties during loading, unloading, transshipment, transport, and exhibition.
Transit Visa Visa allowing holder to stop over in a country to make a travel connection or for a brief visit.
Translation The rendering of one language into another of something written or spoken. See Also Consecutive Interpretation, Interpretation, Interpretation in Relay, Simultaneous Interpretation, Whispered Interpretation, Wireless Infrared Interpreting System
Translite A defused transparency, usually mounted between rigid plastic panels.
Translucence A silhouette of the hand will be visible through the fine china that makes it semi transparent.
Translucency A sheet of treated thin material that may be used to produce silhouette effects.
Translucent Rear Projection Screen Plastic screen with a special gray coating allowing images projected from behind the screen to be viewed by the audience in front.
Transmission Fibers Fiber optics used for light or information transmission; also known as fiber optics.
Transmitter Unit An apparatus for transmitting radio waves through space.
Transparency 1) Audiovisual material designed to be shown on an overhead projector (also called an overhead). 2) A black and white or color translucent (see-through) photograph or artwork.
Transport Coordinator/Officer Person in charge of planning and managing transportation arrangements for participants.
Transportation Means of transport, i.e. buses, coaches, cars, etc.
Trapping Method of consolidating shipments. Usually defines function of an LTL trucker grouping freight for shipment to a particular show.
Travel Agent/Agency Person or firm which is licensed and specializes in travel related arrangements, such booking hotel rooms, meals, transportation, cruises, tours, vacation packages and other travel elements.
Travel Insurance An insurance against accidents that occur in the course of travel to or from an event, traveling abroad on business or pleasure.
Travel Mission Group tour with a business rather than a vacation purpose. Usually planned for business or government representatives traveling overseas to secure new business in foreign markets for their product, city or other entity. See Also Trade Missions
Travel Suppliers Services that cater to travelers (hotels, restaurants, transportation, etc.).
Traveler 1) Large curtain on a heavy duty traverse rod, which opens horizontally from the middle or one side of the stage. 2) A person who is visiting a different area than that in which he or she lives.
Traverse A curtain across a stage, usually towards the back of the stage.
Treadmill Stage Machine device consisting of belts running on the stage floor where actors may give the illusion of traveling over a distance.
Treads See Also Cyclorama
Treasurer An individual appointed to control the finances of an event or organization.
Trestle Table A rectangular table ranging from 4’ to 12’ in length and 2 /2’ in width.
Trim Props Props arranged to decorate the set. Also Called SET DRESSING.
Trip Director An escort for an incentive company. Larger companies reserve this title for the person who directs all personnel and activities for a particular incentive trip.
Trip Tray Box rigged to empty its contents, such as snow or confetti, onto the stage.
Triple Room Room with at least two beds occupied by three persons.
Triple Sheet Bed made with a third sheet on top of the blanket. Also Called 3-SHEET.
Tripod Screen Portable projection screen (usually not larger than 10-12 feet) with three folding legs and a pull-up surface supported by a rod on the back.
Trouble Box A box containing tools and supplies to repair an exhibit or product if a problems occurs. See Also Gang Box, Job Box
Trouble Shoot Process of finding out why plans or equipment are not working properly.
Truck Loaders Union labor specifically responsible for unloading equipment.
Truckload Truckload rates apply where the tariff shows a truckload minimum weight. Charges will be at the truckload minimum weight unless weight is higher.
Truckload Rates Truckload rates apply where the tariff shows a truckload minimum weight. Charges will be at the truckload minimum weight unless weight is higher.
Truffle 1) A fungus which grows underground in France, and is very expensive. 2) A chocolate candy.
Truss 1) A frame to carry the room of a tent. 2) A structure of steel bars used to suspend lighting or other technical equipment over a stage. 3) To tie or bind something tightly.
Trust Receipt Release of merchandise by a bank to a buyer in which the bank retains title to the merchandise. The buyer, who obtains the goods for manufacturing or sales purposes, is obligated to maintain the goods (or the proceeds from their sale) distinct from the remainder of his or her assets and to hold them ready for repossession by the bank.
Try Out Room Room where speakers can check their presentations, slides, overheads, videotapes etc. See Also Ready Room
Tsatske See Also Tchotchke
TSB Trade Show Bureau.
TSEA Trade Show Exhibitors Association (formerly the International Exhibitors Association). A member of the Convention Industry Council.
T-Shape Set-Up Series of tables set up in the shape of the block T with chairs set all around except at the head table.
Tube Lights A string of small, low voltage lights contained in a clear or transparent colored plastic tube, generally wired to be run by a three- or four-circuit sequencer (controller); used as a highlighter around signs, stages, or entrances. They can be bent and mounted on peg-board or other surfaces to form lighted words. See Also Rope Lights
Tuner Radio, usually AM/FM type, for receiving off-the-air signals for use within the in house system.
Tunnel A horizontal cone of light produced by lasers and fog.
Turn the House Procedure using an equalizer and sound source through which the sound of a system is adapted to the particular characteristics of a performance space. In the permanently installed system, the equalization is usually set permanently and not changed. In touring systems, the system will be equalized to fit each venue.
Turnaround An action required to break down and reset a room.
Turn-Around Time The time it takes to return to your original point of departure during a continuous move.
Turnbuckle Hardware installed between stretched cable to adjust tension.
Turndown Service Preparation of a bedroom for sleeping by hotel or cruise ship staff that includes turning down the sheets and placing a mint or candy on the pillow.
Turn-Down Service Early evening service in which beds are prepared for sleeping. Usually includes replacement of bathroom linens, perhaps leaving the lights on, turning on a radio, or adding candy on the pillow.
Turnkey Exhibit A system whereby the exhibit manager turns responsibility of the display over to an exhibit house. In essence, the exhibitor simply ‘turns the key’ upon arrival at the event and opens the booth/stand.
Turnover 1) Breaking down and resetting a function room with a different set-up. 2) A pastry that usually has a fruit filling.
Turntable Electrically or manually rotating platform.
Turret Projector General term for slide projector that stores slides in rotating cylinder, dropping or passing slides one at a time between light source and lens.
Tuxedo Table Bar height cocktail table. See Also Cocktail Table
TV Monitor A type of screen used to show a video image, which has denser pixels (for a sharper image) than a normal television screen.
Tweeter Loudspeaker designed to reproduce high frequencies only. Tweeters are typically use at frequencies beyond the center of the audio spectrum which, if placed on a logarithmic scale like a piano keyboard, would be about 630 Hz.
Twenty Footer A 20′ by (usually) 10′ exhibit space. Similar terminology (a 30 footer, etc.) may be used.
Twin Bed A bed measuring 38” x 75” (95cm x 88cm); also known as a single bed. See SINGLE BED. See Also Single Bed
Twinkle Lights Flickering or intermittent lights.
Twist Lock Type of electrical plugs which are connected by twisting together as opposed to standard male and female plugs.
Two-By-Two Slide Piece of 35 mm photographic film in a 2 in x 2 in cardboard, glass or plastic mount. See SLIDE. See Also Slide
Two-Tiered Set-Up A seating arrangement with a row of seats on low risers around a BOARDROOM SET-UP. A very space-intensive set-up. See Also Riser, Boardroom Set-Up
Type Casting Selecting actors for roles because they resemble the characters in real life.
Typeface Name of type design; e.g., Helvetica, Schoolbook, Times Roman, etc. See Also Font
Typeset Copy Text whose type has been mechanically set prior to reproduction.
Typographic Families Distinct styles of letter and character design.
Tyrex Cord A type of cord that, within proper specifications, makes an acceptable electrical cord for exhibits.
U/W Insurance underwriter.
UCT Universal Coordinated Time. A standard for time whose master clock is maintained by the United States National Observatory in Bethesda, Maryland. See Also Greenwich Mean Time, Zulu Time
U-Format Professional/broadcast quality video format in which the tape is 3/4-inch wide and can be used to record and playback; not compatible with VHS or Beta formats. Sometimes called U-Matic.
UL 2305 Standard for safety for exhibition display units.
Ultra Vires Beyond the scope or in excess of legal power or authority.
Ultraviolet Lamp A black light used to make phosphorescent and fluorescent paints glow in the dark.
U-Matic Professional/broadcast quality video format in which the tape is 3/4-inch wide and can be used to record and playback; not compatible with VHS or Beta formats. Sometimes called U-Format.
Umeboshi Japanese plum used as a condiment.
Unanimous All who voted are in agreement.
Unbalanced Wiring consisting of two conductors, usually one inside the other with the outer conductor shielding the inner conductor. The outer shield is connected to ground or chassis and the inner conductor carries the signal. Virtually all hi-fi signal wiring is of the unbalanced type, as is wiring inside TV sets, audio mixers and other audio equipment.
Under Depart A guest who stays at a housing facility (hotel, motel, etc.) one or more days longer than his or her scheduled departure date. Also Called STAY OVER, OVERSTAY. See Also Under-Stay
Under the Auspices of With guiding sponsorship by.
Under the Patronage Of Use of an eminent name by way of endorsement.
Underground Hospitality Suite Hospitality suite that is not hosted by an official sponsoring organization (liability risk).
Underliner Plate used under bowl, glass, condiments, and so forth. See Also Base Plate
Underpayment An insufficient payment or funds for items ordered.
Underscore To play music during a scene.
Under-Stay A guest who checks out of a housing facility (hotel, motel, etc.) one or more days earlier than his or her scheduled departure date. See Also Overstay
Unexpected Departure A guest who checks out of a housing facility (hotel, motel, etc.) one or more days earlier than his or her scheduled departure date. See Also Overstay
Uniform Resource Locator URL A web site address.
Union A labor organization, typically made up of workers from the same trade formed for the purpose of advancing its members’ interests such as dealing collectively with their employer on issues of wages, hours, working conditions and other matters pertaining to their employment.
Union Call 1) The number of union members hired to work for an event. 2) Additional servers obtained from a labor source shared by several hotels. 3) The minimum number of hours for which a union laborer must be paid, regardless of actual hours worked.
Union Contract Written agreement between an employer and a union specifying the terms and conditions of employment for workers, the status of the union, and the procedure of settling disputes arising during the contract term. See Also Collective Agreement
Union House Facility in which workers are governed and regulated by an organized union; often maintain exclusive contractors.
Union Jurisdiction The limits or territory within which control may be exercised by a union may be of at least two kinds. One has to do with geographical limits; the other with trade or craft activity.
Union Official Representative of a union either selected or elected by the membership to conduct the affairs of the union.
Union Referral Method of hiring in which the union refers job applicants to the employer. Differs from central hiring hall in that there is no fixed location at which applicants gather.
Union Set-Up Seating arrangement with both tables and chairs. Tables are lined up in rows, one behind the other, with chairs facing head table. See Also Classroom Set-Up
Union Shop A unionized business in which the employer by agreement is free to hire nonmembers as well as members of the union, but newly-hired employees are required, as a condition of employment, to join the union within a specified time after employment, and in which all employees must maintain good standing in the union as a condition of employment.
Union Steward On-site union official. The steward is elected by his or her co-workers to oversee that particular union’s work in the facility. Stewards are responsible for resolving disputes over union jurisdiction, handling grievances, and ensuring that the terms specified in the union contract are complied with. Also known as Committeeman.
Uniserve Property A hotel property in which the convention services manager (CSM) handles all aspects of the event, including catering.
Unity Gain No gain or loss. A device with unity gain would produce the same voltage at its output as the voltage applied at its input.
Unsettled Account An outstanding invoice not yet paid.
Upgrade Provide a higher level of product or service than was ordered or reserved (e.g., move to First Class on an airplane, move to a suite in a hotel).
Upgradeable Fare Many carriers offer full coach fares that allow the passenger to upgrade to first class without an additional cost.
Uplink The station used to transmit signals from Earth to a satellite (videoconferencing).
Up-Linking The sending of video signals via microwave to an existing satellite for transmission to selected sites or anyone capable of satellite reception for that signal; used for teleconferencing or broad distribution of a message on a national or international basis.
Upper Case Capital letters.
Upper Deck Any occupied second story or greater area, which is accessible by an approved means of egress.
Upright 1) Vertical position. 2) Metal support for drapes. See Also Post
Upsell To increase the revenue generated from an attendee or exhibitor, usually by selling such individuals valued added services or goods.
Upson Board Fiberboard of varying thickness, used as the surface for visual enhancement such as paint or decoration.
Upstage Part of the stage farthest from the audience or camera.
URL Uniform Resource Locator. Internet address for a web site. Starts with http://.
Usability A lesser standard of accessibility that does not meet ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities (ADAAG) minimum requirements, but that may be functionally usable by some people with disabilities.
Use Day Term used as a base unit in calculating occupancies. Various facilities have developed different definitions; one of the most common is use of all or part of a facility by one client or tenant for all or part of one day for any purpose; includes event, move-in, move-out and hiatus days.
Useage Temporary storage area for excess furniture, carpet and equipment. Typically used by general service contractor on show site.
U-Shape Set-Up Series of tables set up in the shape of the letter U with chairs set all around on one or both sides.
USSG U.S. Standard Gauge for bolt threads.
Utilities Specific energy needs relating to use of electrical power, water, or gas. Traditionally associated with exhibitor needs.
Utility Box Box in floor, wall, or column which houses electric outlets and other utility sources.
Vacuum Forming Technique for molding plastic sheets by heating and drawing sheets in a vacuum press.
Valance 1) A trip or finish curtain, usually 12” deep with scalloped edge, used to give a tent a finished appearance. 2) A short overhead, decorative border normally used as a light baffle or screen.
Validated Export License A document issued by the U.S. Government authorizing the export of commodities for which written export authorization is required by law. See Also General Export License
Validation Travel agency’s ARC/IATA approved name and number imprinted upon the airline ticket.
Validity Period The length of time of an airline ticket validity printed on the “pot valid after” column.
Valley Time frame of lower demand for a service or product, depressed period. See Also Shoulder Season
Value Added Tax VAT A tax that is added to a product at each step of the manufacturing and marketing process reflecting value which has been added to the product by processing.
Value Season See Also Low Season
Van Line Carrier that specializes in shipping uncrated exhibits, high-tech equipment and delicate materials that require special handling.
Van Shipment Shipment of exhibit properties via van lines, often consisting of large pieces, crated or uncrated, such as furniture and exhibit materials.
Vapor Lights Special effects lighting. (Street lights are usually mercury vapor lights which have a bluish tint; sodium vapor lights have a yellowish cast and are often used in parking lots.)
Variable Costs or Expenses Expenses that vary based upon various factors, such as the number of attendees.
Varietal Wine Wines made mainly from one variety of grape. Such wines have the characteristics of the primary grape used. Popular varietals are: Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Gewurztraminer, Pinot Noir, Sauvignon Blanc and Zinfandel.
Variety Entertainment Acts such as singers, dancers, comics, or any stand-up performer as opposed to a musical group.
VAT Value Added Tax. Applies to all EC countries, Switzerland and other countries around the world. A tax on the estimated market value added to any product at each stage of its manufacture or distribution, ultimately passed on to the consumer. The percentage applies to CIF value and duties and the percentage differs from one country to another. Local VAT on forwarding/handling services is not charged between EC companies with a registered VAT number, or to non-EC exhibitors on condition the local forwarder executes Customs clearance and transport.
VCR Video cassette recorder.
Veau (voh) Veal.
Vega Mic Brand name which has been generalized to mean WIRELESS MICROPHONE. See Also Microphone, Microphone, Wireless
Vegan An individual who eats no meat, and does not use other animal products and by-products such as eggs, dairy products, honey, leather, fur, silk, wool, cosmetics, and soaps derived from animal products. See Also Vegetarian
Vegetarian An individual who does not eat meat. See Also Vegan
Velcro® Brand name of special tape used to adhere objects to a display. The tape has two components: loop and fabric. The two components adhere to one another, but may be easily separated and reattached, allowing graphics and other materials to be moved.
Velour A plush fabric like velvet, used for draperies, upholstery, etc.
Velouté White sauce used as a base for other sauces.
Velox Photographic material used in preparing camera-ready art. See Also Photostat
Vendor One who sells services or goods.
Veneer Finish product that is applied over a base material, or substrate.
Ventilation The process of supplying or removing air by natural or mechanical means to or from any space.
Venue 1) Site or destination of meeting, event or show 2). Location of performance such as hall, ballroom, auditorium, etc.
Venue Manager The person at the venue responsible for all transportation aspects at the location.
Verbatim Report A full and exact word-for-word transcript, in writing, of all speeches, debates or discussions.
Verified Attendance The number of attendees who actually come to the event. Attendee figures, which have been audited to substantiate the actual number of attendees at an event.
Veronique Prepared with creamy white sauce and green grapes.
Vert Green.
Vertical Cuisine Menu items where food is stacked for height, such as endive boats filled with salad greens. See Also Architectural Cuisine
Vertical Show An exhibition at which the products or services being displayed represent one element of an industry or profession. See Also Exhibition, Horizontal Show
Vertical Union Union with jurisdiction over all occupations, skilled and unskilled, in an entire industry.
Very Important Person VIP Person who has a special function at the event (speaker, dignitary, etc.) and should be treated with special care and attention.
VHS Format Video Home System. Video tape recorder and player utilizing 1/2-inch (1.27 centimeter) tape. Not compatible with beta format.
Vibrancy Degree of intensity of colors. See Also Brilliance
Vice-Chairman/ Woman/Person Person selected to deputize for, or assist, the chairman in controlling and managing either a committee or a conference session.
Vidalia Onions Sweet onions, only from South Georgia.
Video Character Generator A computer-assisted device used to generate and create letters, numbers and symbols electronically. In simple terms, it is a video image; it can also be used to recap key points made by a speaker or supply basic information such as final credits.
Video Enhancement The enlargement of a video image from the size of a typical consumer television screen to dimensions for large projection screens used when attempting to present a larger-than-life image to an audience. See Also Video Magnification
Video Formats Type and size of the recording format in which a video presentation is recorded or played back. These include VHS (the most common), Beta, U-Matic, 1 inch, 3/4 inch and 1/2 inch.
Video Magnification See Also Image Magnification , Video Enhancement
Video Player Equipment for paying back video and audio signals on magnetic tape.
Video Projection Casting video images on monitors or on large screen.
Video Projector An equipment used to project a video image on a large screen; also known as teleprojector.
Video Recorder Equipment for the recording of images and sound on a magnetic tape in the form of a video.
Videoconference A meeting between two or more people or groups across a distance, including video, audio, and potentially other data, utilizing telecommunications or communications satellites for transmission of the signal. See Also Teleconference
Videographers Professionals hired to develop videotape that can be used to promote an event.
Videotape Magnetic tape used in video equipment to record and play back video images.
Videowall Array of video screens in a rectangular fashion on which images may be displayed individually on each screen or portions of the same image may be displayed in an enlarged format involving the whole or part of the array.
Vinaigrette Served with an oil and vinegar dressing.
Vintage Wine made from a grape harvest of a specific year. A vintage wine is made using 95 percent of those grapes. Wines made from grapes harvested from several years are called nonvintage.
Vinyl Plastic material used for drapes or table tops.
Vinyl Tops Plastic table-top coverings.
VIP Very Important Person. Person who has a special function at the event (speaker, dignitary, etc.) and should be treated with special care and attention.
VIP Identification A means for identifying the very important people at an event using badges, flowers or special seating.
VIP Services A system of providing special assistance to a highranking official or important guest.
Virtual Conferencing Any meeting where people at two or more distant locations are linked using video, audio and data for twoway communication via satellite communications or the Internet. Each party sees and hears the other through a TV screen or computer monitor and audio speakers.
Virtual Tour Any tour where people at two or more distant locations are linked using video, audio and data for communications. Each party sees and hears the tour through a TV screen or computer monitor and audio speakers.
Virtual Trade Show Exhibit of products or services that can be viewed over the internet.
Visa Permit, recorded in a passport, to enter a country for a specific purpose and period of time.
Vischyssoise Chilled potato, chicken broth soup.
Visit Organized outing to a local place of interest.
Visitor 1) An attendee and/or a potential customer. 2) According to the World Tourism Organization: Visitor refers to any person traveling to a place other than that of his/her usual environment for less than 12 consecutive months and whose main purpose of trip is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.
Visqueen A type of clear plastic sheeting used to protect carpeting.
Visual Aid Materials used in a presentation to give a visual image that will help clarify or demonstrate a point to the audience.
Vitrified Material that is changed into a glass like substance by fusion due to heat.
VOC Volatile Organic Compounds. Volatile organic compounds are compounds that have a high vapor pressure and low water solubility. Many VOCs are human-made chemicals that are used and produced in the manufacture of paints, pharmaceuticals, and refrigerants. VOCs typically are industrial solvents, such as trichloroethylene; fuel oxygenates, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE); or by-products produced by chlorination in water treatment, such as chloroform. VOCs are often components of petroleum fuels, hydraulic fluids, paint thinners, and dry cleaning agents. VOCs are common ground-water contaminants.
Voice Over Announcement or other narrative copy which is “voiced” over the top of video or musical programming.
Voicing Equalization of sounds produced by a system such as a piano or a loudspeaker so that the audio spectrum is produced evenly with all notes or frequencies at the same volume.
Void A ticket returned within the same calendar week it was issued but prior to the submission of the ARC sales report. Voided tickets do not appear on the traveler or corporate credit card.
Vol au Vent Puff pastry shell or cup, usually filled with creamed meat entrée or a fruit/custard dessert.
Voltage The measurement of the force needed for the flow of electricity. An International System unit of electromotive force or potential difference, usually expressed in “volts.”
Volume 1) Rates or classes are those for which a minimum weight (Vol. min. wt.) is provided; charges will be assessed at the volume minimum weight shown in the tariff, except that actual weight will apply when in excess of the minimum weight. 2) Popular term used to denote sound intensity level.
Volume Incentive See Also Override
Voluntary Upgrade Individual moves to higher priced class of service or accommodations for additional fare.
Volunteer Speaker Speaker (usually a member of the organization) who volunteers their skills as a presenter for a meeting.
Voucher Ticket which travelers exchange for prepaid services such as accommodations, meals, and tours. See Also Coupon
Voucher Plan Hotel plan whereby the daily rate covers the room cost and provides a set amount that can be applied to food and beverage items.
V-Shape Set-Up Seating arrangement in which chairs are arranged in rows slanted in a V shape and separated by a center aisle. They face the head table or speaker.. See Also Herringbone Set-Up, Chevron Set-Up
VT Video tape.
VTR Video tape recording or video tape recorder.
vu Unit of volume in which the standard volume meter is calibrated. A change in volume of one vu is the equivalent to a change of one decibel for a sine wave when measured across a 600 ohm resistance.
vu Meter Special voltmeter calibrated in units called volume unit (vu). It is used to give a visual indication for a change in volume of complex waveforms, such as the human voice or music. The meter is usually found on audio equipment manufactured both for commercial and consumer products.
VUSA Fare Visit U.S.A. fare. In conjunction with a roundtrip airfare to the United States, offers travelers discounted air fares within the United States and Canada.
W&I Weighing and Inspection.
W/B Waybill.
WA With Average. A marine insurance term meaning that a shipment is protected from partial damage whenever the damage exceeds a specified percentage – usually 3 percent.
Wage Pattern The wage structure of various jobs in a specific industry or area.
Wage Rate Rate of pay per period of time or per unit of production for labor or services provided by an individual on a given job.
Wages The total of all salaries, wages paid, contract labor payments, worker’s compensation, consultant fees, benefit costs and payroll taxes that are made to employees for work carried out.
Waiter Parade White gloved servers circle the room, usually with flaming dishes, before placing the food on the tables with a flourish.
Waiting Time An accessorial charge associated with the cost of a carrier waiting in line or waiting in a marshalling area to get unloaded or re-loaded. Most carriers will not charge for minor delays.
Waitlist Term used for a list of clients awaiting transportation or accommodations at time when they are unavailable. Waitlist clients are confirmed as a result of subsequent cancellations.
Waitlisted If a traveler’s preferred flight is completely full, in most instances it can be waitlisted and an alternative flight confirmed as “protection.”
Waiver of Subrogation A release of rights to substitute one party for another party. The release of an insurance company right to succeed to the insured’s rights to sue for damages against the tortfeasor, after the insurance company pays an insured’s claim of loss due to another’s tort.
Waldorf Salad Dish of diced apples, celery, chopped walnuts, mayonnaise and whipped cream.
Walk Guest holding confirmed sleeping room reservation is denied accommodations at the hotel where to reservation is held upon their arrival and is relocated to another hotel.
Walk and Talk Slang for a reception without seating.
Walk Away Clause See Also Cancellation Clause
Walk Out See Also Strike
Walkie-Talkie Wireless radio that transmits and receives oral communications.
Walk-In Guest requesting accommodations without a prior reservation.
Walk-In/Out Music Music accompanying arriving and exiting guests at an event (processional, recessional).
Walking Guest A guest with hotel reservations who is denied a room due to the hotel’s overbooking.
Walking Tour A standard trip for sightseeing or for inspection on foot on a certain course.
Walk-On Music played while a new presenter arrives on stage.
Walk-Through 1) Review of event details. 2) Site inspection. 3) Inspection of function room prior to function. 4) Inspection of exhibit floor prior to opening of the event.
Walk-Up Call Asking the celebrity or speaker to come up on stage from the audience to make a presentation.
Walk-Up Reservation A traveler who makes a purchase from a supplier without the benefit of an advance reservation.
Wallboard A soft wood or fiber product used in one-time paneling or where whiteness and softness is desired.
WAN Wide Area Network. Any Internet or network that covers an area larger than a single building or campus. It spans multiple geographic distances.
War Room Exhibit space lottery location.
Wardrobe 1) Costumes and all articles of dress of a play or production. 2) Room in which costumes are store or fitted.
Wardrobe Mistress An individual in charge of costumes and their upkeep.
Warehouse Receipt A receipt issued by a warehouse listing goods received for storage. See Also Dock Receipt
Warm-Up Activity to liven up the audience prior to show time.
Warranty Statement made on an application for insurance that the applicant warrants to be true. If untrue, in any respect, any insurance relating to that warranty can be voided.
Wasabi Japanese paste condiment made from horseradish.
Wash The difference between number of reservations at cut-off date and the number of final reservations at the end of an event. Can be positive or negative and be expressed as a number or percentage. See Also Cancellation/No-Show Percentage
Wash Light Colored light that softly illuminates an area.
Waste Removal Removal of trash from building.
Waste Water Drain A temporary drain line usually leading into sewer system.
Water Closet WC. Sanitary convenience. Also Called TOILET, LAVATORY.
Water Connection The temporary supply of water to a booth/stand.
Water Cooling The method used to cool high-power lasers which requires a standard water supply (such as a janitor’s sink drain). In some circumstances the water is maintained in a closed system and the heat is extracted by a heat exchanger.
Water Stations Tables with containers of drinking water and glasses for self service.
Water Weights When large barrels are filled with water and used for anchoring a tent.
Watt A unit of electrical power equal to a current of one ampere under one volt of pressure.
Waveform Shape of the wave produced by a sound. Such shapes depend on the content of harmonics of the sound, and can be viewed on an oscilloscope fed by a microphone or other sound signal source.
Wavelength Length of waves (from crest through trough to crest) produced by propagating sound, light or electromagnetic radiation. All radiation produces waves.
Way Bill List of enclosed goods and shipping instructions, sent with material in transit.
Weather Back-Up Plan The process of formulating strategies or detailed plans to deal with possible and unanticipated weather conditions that may affect events or other outdoor programs.
Web World Wide Web.
Webcast An event that broadcasts the audio and/or video portion of a keynote presentation or other educational sessions over the Web in real-time or on-demand.
Webconferencing Web browser-based videoconferencing.
Webmaster The person who maintains the Web site.
Welcome Cocktail A drink served as an introductory gesture of welcome. Can refer to a single drink, or a reception where such drinks are served.
Welcome Reception An opening event where welcome drinks and often food are served.
Well Brand See Also House Brand
Wet Addition of reverberation to audio program source material makes the sound “wet” when compared to “dry” sounds with no reverberation. See Also Dry
Wet Lease Rental of a plane with crew, supplies, fuel, and maintenance service.
Wet Mount Process of wetting photo blow up prior to wrapping it around a panel.
Wharfage A charge assessed by a pier or dock owner for handling incoming or outgoing cargo.
Wheeler/Wheelie An upright, manually propelled, two wheeled cart used to move objects, such as boxes or luggage.
Whispered Interpretation Interpretation by an interpreter in a low voice to the audience usually while sitting next to the interpreter. See Also Consecutive Interpretation, Interpretation, Interpretation in Relay, Simultaneous Interpretation, Translation, Wireless Infrared Interpreting System
White Board A board with a white surface on which one can write with washable markers. See Also Blackboard, Chalkboard
White Noise Random noise whose various frequency components all share the same energy density characteristics, producing the same voltage at any particular discrete frequency over a period of time, thus causing a frequency response trend that rises the same number of decibels as the percentage of frequency increase. See Also Noise
White Tie Formal dress requiring white tie and tails for men and formal evening dress for women. See Also Black Tie, Formal Dress
Whiteboarding A feature of videoconferencing systems which allows the placement of shared documents on an on-screen shared space or “whiteboard.” Participants can edit and mark up the document just as on a physical whiteboard.
Wholesaler Company which packages various components of tours and travel programs for sale through travel agencies.
Wide-Angle Lens Special lens on projector for wider than normal image projection.
Widow A short line of type at the end of a paragraph, usually one or two words.
Windscreen Porous cover for microphones to block unwanted sounds.
Wing Nut Commonly used threaded nut with flanges. Used for connecting backwall panels, and preferred for their easy adjustment by hand.
Wings Off-stage area out of audience sight lines.
Win-Win Situation Negotiable concept in which all parties benefit from the contract.
Wipe Scene in a motion picture that appears to be pushed off screen by a new scene.
Wire Nut Plastic thimble with recessed spring that closes spliced wires so that electrical contact is maintained.
Wireless Infrared Interpreting System An interpreting system operated by radio waves and hence without wire or cable connections to audience headsets. See Also Consecutive Interpretation, Interpretation, Interpretation in Relay, Simultaneous Interpretation, Translation, Whispered Interpretation
Wishbone Leg Fold-up leg on display table.
Without Reserve A term indicating that a shipper’s agent or representative is empowered to make definitive decisions and adjustments abroad without approval of the group or individual represented. See Also Advisory Capacity
Won Ton Chinese ravioli.
Woofer Loudspeaker designed to reproduce low-frequency sound only. Some woofers are called full-range loudspeakers and are used alone, e.g., ceiling speakers. Woofer in systems are usually used below about 3000Hz.
Work Lights Lights used for rehearsal or working on stage.
Work Rules Jurisdictional regulations which govern union craftsperson’s working arrangement, include what work exhibitor may perform, when overtime begins, etc.
Work Time Paid time that begins as soon as the workers are turned over to the exhibitor. Stops when the exhibitor releases them.
Working Drawing The detail plans from which an exhibit is constructed.
Working Foreman Employee who functions both as an employee and a supervisor at the same time. May be a workman part of the time and a foreman the rest of the time. May or may not be considered a supervisor under the Wage-Hour Law and the Labor Management Relations Act.
Working Group 1) A meeting at which participants learn about a specific subject by means of practical “hands-on” application to that subject. 2) A meeting at which the participants discuss a particular subject, usually with the expectation of arriving at a common position within the group for proposing a solution to the problem.
Working Language The language in which the various aspects of a meeting are conducted in practice.
Working Lunch Light meal for small discussion groups, without a break from working sessions.
Working Program Timetable of conference content.
Working Session Every pre-arranged session of a formal meeting such as a congress or convention.
Workshop 1) Meeting of several persons for intensive discussion. The workshop concept has been developed to compensate for diverging views in a particular discipline or on a particular subject. 2) Informal and public session of free discussion organized to take place between formal plenary sessions or commissions of a congress or of a conference, either on a subject chosen by the participants themselves or else on a special problem suggested by the organizers. 3) Training session in which participants, often through exercises, develop skills and knowledge in a given field.
World’s Fair An infrequently occurring celebration that typically showcases the latest or future advances in the arts, culture, and technology.
Worldspan One of the four major Computerized Reservation Systems (CRS) or Global Distribution Systems (GDS).
Wrap-Up 1) To conclude an event. 2) To prepare the final report on an event.
Writing Chairs See Also Tablet Chairs
Xenon Lamp Extremely high intensity lamp that is replacing the carbon arc light source in follow spots and long distance projectors.
XFMR Abbreviation for “transformer.”
XL Connector See Also XLR Connector
XLR Connector Typically, a three-pin plug or receptacle with a metal shell used for microphone cables and line level signal-carrying cabling.
XML eXtensible Markup Language. An organizational markup language that describes text in a digital document.
Yakitori Japanese term meaning “grilled” (yaki ) “fowl” (tori ), usually referring to pieces of marinated chicken that are skewered and grilled. Other meats may be used in place of the chicken.
Yellow-Dog Contract Employment agreement, oral or written, providing that, as a condition of employment, an employee will not become or remain a union member. Illegal under the Norris- LaGuardia Act.
Yield 1) Number of pieces obtained from any given unit. 2) Exhibit revenue divided by net square feet or conference revenue divided by total number of conference attendees.
Yield Management Computer program that uses variable pricing models to maximize the return on a fixed (perishable) inventory, such as hotel rooms, based on supply-and-demand theory.
Yield Management System A sophisticated computer-based pricing system that vendors use to adjust prices based on anticipated demand. Also referred to as Revenue Management.
Yoke The metal, U-shaped support, which holds a lighting instrument.
Zero-Based Budgeting The process of building a budget without benefit of a previous year’s budget.
Zone Fares Unpublished rates offered from the areas of the U.S. and Canada to specified event destinations; they do not require Saturday night stay over.
Zones The rightmost part of an Internet address is called its zone. Name zones are divided into two categories: the three letter zone and the two letter zone. Three letter zones are set up by type of organizations; .com stands for commercial; .edu stands for educational institutions; .gov represents government bodies and departments. Within the United States, most Internet sites have names in one of the three letter zones; elsewhere, it is more common to use geographic names, by country or other recognized political entity.
Zoom Lens Projection or camera lens of variable magnification that permits a smooth change of subject coverage between distance and close-up without changing the projection or the camera position.
Zulu Time Greenwich Mean Time, the world time standard. See Also UCT, GMT

301 redirect A web server function where an old URL can be redirected to a new one
Adwords Google Pay-Per-Click (see PPC below) contextual advertisement program, very common way of basic website advertisement.
Affiliate An affiliate site markets products or services that are actually sold by another website or business in exchange for fees or commissions.
Alt text A description of a graphic, which usually isn’t displayed to the end user, unless the graphic is undeliverable, or a browser is used that doesn’t display graphics.
Anchor text Visible characters and words that hyperlink display when linking to another document or location on the web

E.g. In the phrase: The CNN is a good source of news information.”CNN” is the anchor text pointing to

Authority site A website which has many incoming links from other related expert/hub sites. With the simultaneous citation from trusted hubs, an authority site usually has high trust, pagerank, and search results placement.
Back link Any link into a page or site from any other page or site.
Blog A blog is a communication platform that can serve a wide range of purposes from corporate strategy, marketing, sharing information and news, and general interest. Blogs typically act as independent websites or as an extension of a larger site.
Bounce rate Percentage of users who enter a site and then leave it without viewing any other pages.
Bread crumbs Web site navigation in a horizontal bar above the main content which helps the user to understand where they are on the site and how to get back to the root areas.
Canonical issues Duplicate content
CPC Cost per Click
CMS Content Management System
Contextual advertisement Advertising which is related to the content.
Conversion Achievement of a quantifiable goal on a website. Add clicks, sign ups, and sales are examples of conversions.
CTR Click through Rate
Directory A site devoted to directory pages. E.g. Yahoo directory
Doorway (gateway) A web page that is designed specifically to attract traffic from a search engine.
E-Commerce site Website devoted to retail sales.
Facebook Facebook is the world’s largest and most engaged social network. Facebook members create personal profiles to connect largely with real life friends and family to share their news, photos, videos, and other things happening in their world. Among many other features, Facebook also offers Pages and Groups that have become widely popular for individuals, movements, and organizations. Among its offerings, Facebook also offers one of the most targeted advertising platforms in existence.
Facebook Groups Facebook Groups are user created and since anyone can create them, they serve many purposes. Groups offer many of the same features as company pages, but are a member not a “fan” based feature.
Facebook Pages Facebook Pages are user created pages that can act as a public relations, customer relationship management, and general communications platform. Facebook users can become “Fans” of particular companies, products, services, etc. which can have a viral “fan” nature through network updates and shared fan suggestions.
Feed Content which is delivered to the user via special websites or programs such as news aggregators.
Gizmo (gadget, widget) Small applications used on web pages to provide specific functions such as a hit counter or IP address display
Google dance The change in SERPs (see SERP below) caused by an update of the Google database or algorithm.
Hub A trusted page with high quality content that links out to related pages.
Hash Tag The pound sign in front of a short set of characters
Iframe An HTML element that makes it possible to embed another HTML document inside the main one. It has become one of the most popular ways to embed interactive and multimedia content inside the block of text.


Impression The event where a user views a webpage one time.
Inbound links Inbound links from related pages are the source of trust and page ranking.
Keyword Significant word that describe the content of one’s website; is a word that a search engine user searches to find relevant web pages.
Keyword cannibalization The excessive reuse of the same keyword on too many web pages within the same site, which makes it difficult for the users and the search engines to determine which page is most relevant for the keyword.
Keyword density The percentage of words on a web page which are a particular keyword. If this value is unnaturally high the page may be penalized.
Landing Page The page website visitors arrive at after clicking on a link. Also a page that is designed with the purpose of directing to other links, like a directory or for information gathering.
Latent semantic indexing (LSI) Refers to how search engines index commonly associated groups of words in a document.
Link condom Method used to avoid passing “link love” to another page, or to avoid possible detrimental results of endorsing a bad site by way of an outgoing link, or to discourage link spam in user generated content.
Link love An outgoing link, which passes trust, unencumbered by any kind of link condom.
LinkedIn LinkedIn is the largest and most powerful professional network on the web. At its core, LinkedIn allows members to search and work through their existing professional relationship up to 3 degrees and group associations. LinkedIn is used for many different business functions including recruiting, research, sales, and marketing.
LinkedIn Groups LinkedIn’s groups are member created. Anyone on the network can create and manage groups. Although membership is usually restricted, some groups to allow open membership. Group access provides open access to member profiles and direct messaging among members. Groups also feature free job postings and discussions.
LinkedIn Company Profile LinkedIn Company Pages include information like the companies employees (new, past, and present), company data (location, age, sex, etc.), description and more. Company pages can be created and edited by anyone with an active company email address. For example, anyone with a email address would have the ability to modify the AARP company Profile.
Long tail Longer search queries that are often less targeted than shorter broad queries. For example a search for “widgets” might be very broad while “red widgets with reverse threads” would be a long tail search. A large percentage of all searches are long tail searches
LPO Landing Page Optimization
Mashup A web page which consists primarily of single purpose software and other small programs (gizmos and gadgets) or possibly links to such programs.
Meta tags Statements within the HEAD section of an HTML page which furnishes information about the page.
MySpace MySpace was one of the first social networks to achieve massive member base (100s of Millions). Although MySpace still retains a massive member base, with the emergence of Facebook, MySpace engagement has reduced significantly. Since MySpace profile content/pages are typically public domain, the platform is most popularly embraced by bands, musicians, and for online dating.
Natural (organic) search “Editorial” search engine results that are purported to be completely non-biased – meaning that the engine will not accept any amount of money to influence the rankings of any individual sites.
Pagerank (PR) A value between 0 and 1 assigned by the Google algorithm, which quantifies link popularity and trust among other (proprietary) factors.
Paid search Also known as sponsored search. They are advertisements in which the sponsor pays for placement at either the top of a search engine results page or as a separate ad, generally placed to the side of organic or natural search results
PPC Pay-per-Click. An Internet advertising model used to direct traffic to websites, where advertisers pay the hosting service when the ad is clicked
Rank The level from top to bottom where your website appears on a search engine page in order of relevance according to the keyword searched, the relevance, keyword history, and age of other sites.
Ranking algorithms A well-guarded black box proprietary mathematical formula that search engines utilize to calculate site ranking in the SERPs for each search query.
Ranking The level from top to bottom where your website appears on a search engine page in order of relevance according to the keyword searched and the relevance, keyword history, age of other sites.
Social Media Newspapers, television, radio, etc. are all forms of media. Social Media is a new form a media, sometimes categorized as “new media”. Social Media refers to everything from social networks/platforms like Facebook and LinkedIn to sites like YouTube, Mashable, and an individual blog. This form of media is largely user-created and is always shared and distributed through the “social web” via messages, emails, status updates, etc.
Status Update A status update is a feature offered by almost all social networks. Usually limited by number of characters, this feature allows members to share news, links, messages, or anything else.
Search engine AltaVista, Bing, Google, Lycos, Yahoo
SEO Search Engine Optimization
SERP Search Engine Ranking Page
SEM Search Engine Marketing
Site map A page or structured group of pages which link to every user accessible page on a website.
Splash page Often animated, graphics-filled pages without significant textual content. May look like a dead end to search engine spiders.
Spider A program used by search engine that crawls any website and returns the number of pages on the server, the number of pages indexed by Google, link popularity, and Alexa rank, and a summary report with search engine ranking stats.
Static page A web page without dynamic content or variables such as session IDs in the URL.
Supplemental index (supplemental results) Pages with very low pagerank, which are still relevant to a search query, often appear in the SERPs with a label of Supplemental Result.
Twitter Twitter is social network focused primarily on the status update feature. Status updates on Twitter (also known as Tweets) are by default published to the public. Members can freely subscribe to the updates of other members, and in some cases (especially with celebrities), one member could have millions following their updates. Twitter updates can be sent and received via text message which is also a core element of the platform.
Tweet A status update on the social network Twitter. Tweets are usually published publicly, unless a member has adjusted their privacy settings.
Web 2.0 The definition of “Web 2.0” is occasionally debated, for the purpose of understanding, Web 2.0 refers to the second largest change (or evolution) of the internet. Web 1.0 was one-way web pages – i.e. you would go to a website and check it out. Today, on Web 2.0 you interact on the web – you can go to a web page, press buttons, create your own content, make edits, create profiles, etc. The web has become a place of interaction and experience, with social networks representing the biggest piece of that trend.


Web 3.0 Web 3.0 refers to the third largest change (or evolution) of the internet to mobile devices.